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21st century period in literature

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21st century period in literature

  1. 1. ST 21 CENTURY PERIOD
  2. 2. 21ST CENTURY IN LITERATURE  refers to world literature in prose produced during the 21st century.  The range of years in 21st century literature was written from (roughly) the year 2001 to the present.
  3. 3.  The 2000s (decade) saw a steep increase in the acceptability of literature of all types, inspired by the comingof-age of millions of people who enjoyed the works of writers such as C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien in their youths.
  4. 4.  The 2000s (decade) also saw the popularization of manga, or Japanese comics, among international audiences, particularly in Englishspeaking nations.
  5. 5. are comics created in Japan, or by Japanese creators in the Japanese language.  The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, suspense, detective, horror, sexuality, and business/commerce, among others. 
  6. 6.  Many famous books like Harry Potter series were converted into movies.  Books on wars, guides for exams, myths, etc. were frequent sellers in this decade.  Some books were written in simple English and works of old writers were translated into language that was easier to understand.  Mythology was converted into graphic novel form to build interest among young readers.
  7. 7. C.S. LEWIS BIOGRAPHY:  AKA: Clive Staples Lewis  Born: Clive Staples Lewis 29 November 1898 Belfast, Ireland  Died: November 22, 1963 (aged 64) in Oxford, England  Nationality: England  Occupation: Novelist, scholar, broadcaster  Genres; Christian apologetics, fantasy,science fiction, children's literature  Notable work(s)  The Chronicles of Narnia Mere Christianity The Allegory of Love The Screwtape Letters The Space Trilogy
  8. 8.  C. S. Lewis was a novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, and Christian apologist.  He is best known both for his fictional work, especially The Screwtape Letters, The Chronicles of Narnia, and The Space Trilogy, and for his non-fiction Christian apologetics, such as Mere Christianity, Miracles, and The Problem of Pain.
  9. 9. THE CHRONICLES OF NARNIA  Set in the fictional realm of Narnia, a fantasy world of magic, mythical beasts, and talking animals, the series narrates the adventures of various children who play central roles in the unfolding history of that world.
  10. 10. THE CHRONICLES OF NARNIA  consist of a series of seven fantasy novels for children by C.S. Lewis. Book 1 - The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)  Book 2 - Prince Caspian(1951)  Book 3 - The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952)  Book 4 - The Silver Chair (1953)  Book 5 - The Horse and His Boy (1954)  Book 6 - The Magician’s Nephew (1955)  Book 7 - The Last Battle (1956).  These children's books are not only very popular with 8-12 year olds, but teens and adults also enjoy them. 
  11. 11. SUMMARY: BOOK 1: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950) It tells the story of four ordinary children: Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy Pevensie, who have been evacuated to the English countryside from London in 1940 following the outbreak of World War II. They discover a wardrobe in Professor Digory Kirke's house that leads to the magical land of Narnia.
  12. 12. The Pevensie children help Aslan, a talking lion, save Narnia from the evil White Witch, who has reigned over the land of Narnia for a century of perpetual winter. The children become kings and queens of this new-found land and establish the Golden Age of Narnia, leaving a legacy to be rediscovered in later books.
  13. 13.  Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia (1951) The Return to Narnia tells the story of the Pevensie children's second trip to Narnia. They are drawn back by the power of Susan's horn, blown by Prince Caspian to summon help in his hour of need. Narnia, as they knew it, is no more, as more than 1,000 years have passed and their castle is in ruins, while all Narnians have retreated so far within themselves that only Aslan's magic can wake them. Caspian has fled into the woods to escape his uncle, Miraz, who has usurped the throne. The children set out once again to save Narnia.
  14. 14.  The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952) The Voyage of the ‘Dawn Treader’ sees Edmund and Lucy Pevensie, along with their priggish cousin,Eustace Scrubb, return to Narnia. Once there, they join Caspian's voyage on the ship Dawn Treader to find the seven lords who were banished when Miraz took over the throne. This perilous journey brings them face to face with many wonders and dangers as they sail toward Aslan's country at the edge of the world.
  15. 15.  The Silver Chair (1953) The Silver Chair is the first Narnia book without any of the Pevensie children. Instead, Aslan calls Eustace back to Narnia together with his classmate Jill Pole. There they are given four signs to aid in the search for Prince Rilian, Caspian's son, who disappeared after setting out ten years earlier to avenge his mother's death. 50 years have passed in Narnia and Caspian, who was barely an adult in the Voyage of the Dawn Treader, is now an old man, while Eustace is still a child. Eustace and Jill, with the help of Puddleglum the Marsh-wiggle, face danger and betrayal on their quest to find Rilian.
  16. 16.  The Horse and His Boy (1954) The story takes place during the reign of the Pevensies in Narnia, an era which begins and ends in the last chapter of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. A talking horse called Bree and a young boy named Shasta, both of whom are in bondage in the country ofCalormen, are the protagonists. By "chance", they meet and plan their return to Narnia and freedom. Along the way they meet Aravis and her talking horse Hwin who are also fleeing to Narnia.
  17. 17.  The Magician's Nephew (1955) The prequel The Magician's Nephew brings the reader back to the origins of Narnia where we learn how Aslan created the world and how evil first entered it. Digory Kirke and his friend Polly Plummer stumble into different worlds by experimenting with magic rings made by Digory's uncle. They encounter Jadis (The White Witch) in the dying world of Charn, and witness the creation of Narnia. Many long-standing questions about the world are answered as a result. The story was set in 1900, when Digory was a 12-year-old boy. He is a middle-aged professor and host to the Pevensie children by the time of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe 40 years later.
  18. 18.  The Last Battle (1956) The Last Battle chronicles the end of the world of Narnia. Jill and Eustace return to save Narnia from Shift, an ape, who tricks Puzzle, a donkey, into impersonating the lion Aslan, precipitating a showdown between the Calormenes and King Tirian.
  19. 19. QUENTIN TARANTINO BIOGRAPHY:  Was born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, and actor.  His films have been characterized by nonlinear storylines, satirical subject matter, and an aestheticization of violence that often results in the exhibition of neo-noir characteristics.  Tarantino has been dubbed a "director DJ," comparing his stylistic use of mix-and-match genre and music infusion to the
  20. 20. PULP FICTION BY QUENTIN TARANTINO  There are a total of seven narrative 1. "Prologue—The Diner" (i) 2.Prelude to "Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace's Wife" 3."Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace's Wife" 4. Prelude to "The Gold Watch" (a—flashback, b—present) 5."The Gold Watch― 6. "The Bonnie Situation" 7. "Epilogue—The Diner" (ii)
  21. 21. PULP FICTION SUMMARY:     "Prologue-The Diner" "Pumpkin" (Tim Roth) and "Honey Bunny" (Amanda Plummer) are having breakfast in a diner. They decide to rob it after realizing they could make money off the customers as well as the business, as they did during their previous heist. Moments after they initiate the hold-up, the scene breaks off and the title credits roll. Prelude to "Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace's Wife" As Jules Winnfield (Samuel L. Jackson) drives, Vincent Vega (John Travolta) talks about his experiences in Europe, from where he has just returned: the hashish bars in Amsterdam, the FrenchMcDonald's and its "Royale with Cheese." The pair—both wearing dress suits—are on their way to retrieve a briefcase from Brett (Frank Whaley), who has transgressed against their boss, gangster Marsellus Wallace. Jules tells Vincent that Marsellus had someone thrown off a fourth-floor balcony for giving his wife a foot massage. Vincent says Marsellus has asked him to escort his wife while Marsellus is out of town. They conclude their banter and "get into character" which soon involves executing Brett in dramatic fashion after Jules recites a baleful "biblical"
  22. 22.     "Vincent Vega and Marsellus Wallace's Wife" The "famous dance scene":[12] Vincent Vega (John Travolta) and Mia Wallace (Uma Thurman) do the twist at Jack Rabbit Slim's. In a virtually empty cocktail lounge, aging prizefighter Butch Coolidge (Bruce Willis) accepts a large sum of money from mobster Marsellus Wallace (Ving Rhames), agreeing to take a dive in his upcoming match. Vincent and Jules—now dressed in T-shirts and shorts—arrive to deliver the briefcase, and Butch and Vincent briefly cross paths. The next day, Vincent drops by the house of Lance (Eric Stoltz) and his wife Jody (Rosanna Arquette) to purchase high-grade heroin. He shoots up before driving over to meet Mrs. Mia Wallace (Uma Thurman) and take her out. They head to Jack Rabbit Slim's, a 1950s-themed restaurant staffed by lookalikes of the decade's pop icons. Mia recounts her experience acting in a failed television pilot, "Fox Force Five." After participating in a twist contest, they return to the Wallace house with the trophy. While Vincent is in the bathroom, Mia finds his stash of heroin in his coat pocket. Mistaking it for cocaine, she snorts it and overdoses. Vincent rushes her to Lance's house for help. Together, they administer anadrenaline shot to Mia's heart, reviving her. Before parting ways, Mia and Vincent agree not to tell Marsellus of the
  23. 23.  Prelude to "The Gold Watch"  Television time for young Butch (Chandler Lindauer) is interrupted by the arrival of Vietnam veteran Captain Koons (Christopher Walken). Koons explains that he has brought a gold watch, passed down through generations of Coolidge men since World War I. Butch's father died of dysentery while in a POW camp, and at his dying request Koons hid the watch in his rectum for two years in order to deliver it to Butch. A bell rings, startling the adult Butch out of this reverie. He is in his boxing colors—it is time for the fight he has been paid to throw.
  24. 24. "The Gold Watch"  Butch flees the arena, having won the bout. Making his getaway by cab, he learns from the death-obsessed driver, Esmarelda Villa Lobos (Angela Jones), that he killed the opposing fighter. Butch has double-crossed Marsellus, betting his payoff on himself at very favorable odds. The next morning, at the motel where he and his girlfriend, Fabienne (Maria de Medeiros), are lying low, Butch discovers that she has forgotten to pack the irreplaceable watch. He returns to his apartment to retrieve it, although Marsellus' men are almost certainly looking for him. Butch finds the watch quickly, but thinking he is alone, pauses for a snack. Only then does he notice a machine pistol on the kitchen counter. Hearing the toilet flush, Butch readies the gun in time to kill a startled Vincent Vega exiting the bathroom. 
  25. 25.  Butch drives away, but while waiting at a traffic light, Marsellus walks by and recognizes him. Butch rams Marsellus with the car, then another automobile collides with his. After a foot chase the two men land in a pawnshop. The shopowner, Maynard (Duane Whitaker), captures them at gunpoint and ties them up in a halfbasement area. Maynard is joined by Zed (Peter Greene); they take Marsellus to another room to rape him, leaving a silent masked figure referred to as "the gimp" to watch a tied-up Butch. Butch breaks loose and knocks out the gimp. He is about to flee, when he decides to save Marsellus. As Zed is sodomizing Marsellus on a pommel horse, Butch kills Maynard with a katana. Marsellus retrieves Maynard's shotgun and shoots Zed in the groin. Marsellus informs Butch that they are even with respect to the botched fight fix, so long as he never tells anyone about the rape and departs Los Angeles, that night, forever. Butch agrees and returns to pick up Fabienne on Zed's chopper.
  26. 26.    "The Bonnie Situation" The story returns to Vincent and Jules at Brett's. After they execute him, another man (Alexis Arquette) bursts out of the bathroom and shoots wildly at them, missing every time before an astonished Jules and Vincent return fire. Jules decides this is a miracle and a sign from God for him to retire as a hitman. They drive off with one of Brett's associates, Marvin (Phil LaMarr), their informant. Vincent asks Marvin for his opinion about the "miracle" and accidentally shoots him in the face. Forced to remove their bloodied car from the road, Jules calls upon the house of his friend Jimmie (Quentin Tarantino). Jimmie's wife, Bonnie, is due back from work soon, and he is very anxious that she not encounter the scene. At Jules' request, Marsellus arranges for the help of Winston Wolfe (Harvey Keitel). "The Wolf" takes charge of the situation, ordering Jules and Vincent to clean the car, hide the body in the trunk, dispose of their own bloody clothes, and change into T-shirts and shorts provided by Jimmie. They drive the car to a junkyard, from where Wolfe and the owner's daughter, Raquel (Julia Sweeney), head off to breakfast. Jules and Vincent decide to do the same.
  27. 27.   "Epilogue-The Diner" As Jules and Vincent eat breakfast in a diner, the discussion returns to Jules' decision to retire. In a brief cutaway, we see "Pumpkin" and "Honey Bunny" shortly before they initiate the hold-up from the movie's first scene. While Vincent is in the bathroom, the hold-up commences. "Pumpkin" demands all of the patrons' valuables, including Jules' mysterious case. Jules surprises "Pumpkin" (whom he calls "Ringo"), holding him at gunpoint. "Honey Bunny" (whose name turns out to be Yolanda), hysterical, trains her gun on Jules. Vincent emerges from the restroom with his gun trained on her, creating a Mexican standoff. Reprising the biblical passage he'd recited at Brett's place (Ezekiel 25:17), only this time with sincerity rather than for effect he explains, Jules expresses his ambivalence about his life of crime. As his first act of redemption, he allows the two robbers to take the cash they have stolen and leave, pondering how they were spared and leaving the briefcase behind for Jules and Vincent to return to Marsellus, finishing Jules' final job for his boss.
  28. 28. 2001- THE CORRECTIONS BY JONATHAN FRANZEN BIOGRAPHY:  Born: Jonathan Earl Franzen August 17, 1959 (age 54) Western Springs, Illinois, USA  Occupation: Novelist, essayist  Nationality: American  Period: 1988–present  Genres: Literary fiction  Literary movement: Social realism  Notable work(s): The Corrections (2001), Freedom (2010)
  29. 29. THE CORRECTIONS BY JONATHAN FRANZEN  It revolves around the troubles of an elderly Midwestern couple and their three adult children, tracing their lives from the mid-twentieth century to "one last Christmas" together near the turn of the millennium.
  30. 30. SUMMARY:   The Corrections focuses on the Lamberts, a traditional and somewhat repressed Midwestern family, whose children have fled to the east coast to start new lives free from the influence of their parents. The novel moves back and forth in time throughout the late twentieth century, depicting the personal growth and mistakes of each family member in detail. The book climaxes around the time of the technology driven economic boom of the late nineties as the troubled family's problems begin to boil to the surface. Alfred Lambert is a railroad engineer and the stern patriarch of the Lambert family, based in the fictional town of St. Jude. After his children grow up and move to the east coast, Alfred retires, but soon begins to suffer from Parkinson's disease, causing his organized and repressed personality to fracture. Alfred's loyal wife Enid has long suffered from his tyrannical behavior, but his increasing dementia makes her life still harder. She is also tortured by the questionable life choices of her three children and their abandonment of midwestern Protestant values. As the economic boom of the late nineties goes into full swing, the family's massive problems become impossible to ignore.
  31. 31. Gary, the eldest Lambert son, is a successful but seemingly depressed and alcoholic banker in Philadelphia who suspects his life is carefully controlled by his manipulative wife and children. Chip, the middle child, is a Marxist academic whose disastrous affair with a student loses him a tenuretrack job and lands him in the employ of a Lithuanian crime boss defrauding American investors. Denise, the youngest of the family, is a successful chef in Philadelphia but loses her job after interlocking romances with both her boss and his wife.  The separate plot-lines converge on Christmas morning back in St. Jude, when Enid and her children are forced to confront Alfred's accelerating physical and mental decline. 
  32. 32. 2002 - ATONEMENT BY IAN MCEWAN BIOGRAPHY: Born: Ian Russell McEwan 21 June 1948 (age 65) Aldershot, England  Occupation: Novelist, screenwriter  Nationality: English[2]  Period: 1975–present  Genre: Short Stories, Libretto, Fiction, Drama, Children 
  33. 33. HIS NOTABLE WORKS: First Love, Last Rites 1987  The Child in Time in 1993  Amsterdam in 1998  Atonement in 2002 
  34. 34. ATONEMENT SUMMARY:     "Atonement" is a book written in three major parts: Part One tells the story of one day/night in 1935 at the Tallis family estate north of London, England. It focuses on Briony Tallis, the thirteenyear-old youngest daughter of three, who aspires to be a writer. She has written a play to be performed at dinner for the homecoming of her brother, Leon, and put on by herself and her three cousins who are staying with the Tallises for the summer because of a divorce between their parents. Before the play can be properly rehearsed, Briony witnesses a scene between her older sister Cecilia and the son of the family charwoman Robbie Turner. What is an innocent act is greatly misunderstood by the young imagination, and this sets off a series of events with eternal consequences. Following the fountain scene, Briony intercepts a letter from Robbie to Cecilia and reads it. In it, she discovers perverse desires and sets out to protect her sister from this sex-craved maniac. Before she can do so, she witnesses the couple making love and mistakes it for assault, further confirming her assumption that Robbie is out to harm Cecilia. Before the night is through, her twin cousins run away from home triggering the rest of the dinner guests to search for them in the dark night. Briony, who is searching alone, witnesses a rape taking place of her older cousin Lola. Not one to miss her opportunity, Briony convinces everyone at the scene, including authorities, that the assailant was Robbie Turner, and he is taken to jail.
  35. 35.   Part Two takes place five years later. It follows Robbie Turner as he retreats through France as a soldier during the war. The reader has learned he served three years in prison for his crime and is now able to exonerate himself by serving in the army. Separated from his battalion, Robbie is marching through the countryside with two other corporals trying to get to the evacuation town of Dunkirk. During his march, Robbie experiences the atrocities of war, and has plenty of time to consider his situation as soldier, criminal, and victim of Briony's false accusations. The three men make it to Dunkirk which is in a state of complete chaos. Robbie is severely wounded but is determined to make it home to Cecilia who is waiting for him. Part Three picks up the eighteen-year-old Briony who has signed up as a nurse in London. Suffering from guilt for her crime as girl, Briony hopes nursing will act as a penance for her sin. Briony is also still writing. She submits a story to a London journal which is rejected, but in the rejection she is encouraged to develop the story further as it is quite good. When the soldiers return from Dunkirk, Briony experiences the horrors of war first hand, and is humiliated at her failure to perform her duty. At the end of Part Three, Briony seeks out her older sister. Before she does, she attends the wedding of Paul Marshall (whom she knows to be Lola's rapist) and Lola. Briony does nothing to stop the marriage.
  36. 36.   When she visits her sister, it is discovered that Robbie is still alive and living with Cecilia. This makes Briony happy to see. She does not so much as ask for forgiveness from the two lovers (who refuse it anyhow) as simply admit her guilt and seek counsel on what she can do to make it better. Robbie and Cecilia give Briony a list of instructions to follow that will help clear Robbie's name. Briony agrees to do each one, and heads back to work in London. The last we see of Robbie and Cecilia are on the tube station platform. The final section of the boo, London, 1999, is a letter from the author to the reader. It is revealed here that the author is Briony herself. She explains that she was able to write the war parts of the book with the aid of letters form the museum of archives and a pen-pal relationship with one of the corporals with whom Robbie marched. Briony attends a birthday party/family reunion at her old home, the original scene of the crime. She also reveals that she is dying. In a final twist, Briony informs her reader that she has made up the part about visiting Cecilia and Robbie in London and how both people died in the war. Her act to let their love last forever in the pages of her book will be her final atonement to her crime.
  37. 37. 2003 - ROMAN TRIPTYCH (MEDITATION) BY POPE JOHN PAUL II BIOGRAPHY: Birth name: Karol Józef Wojtyła  Born: 18 May 1920 Wadowice, Republic of Poland  Died: 2 April 2005 (aged 84) Apostolic Palace, Vatican City  Nationality: Polish (with Vatican citizenship)  Native name: Polish: Jan Paweł II  Church: Roman Catholic Church  Papacy began: October 1978  Papacy ended: 2 April 2005  Successor: Benedict XVI 
  38. 38.  John Paul II is considered one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century.  He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate.  In1978, became the first non-Italian pope in more than 400 years.  He was a vocal advocate for human rights and used his influence to effect political change.  He died in Italy in 2005. It was announced in July of 2013 that he would be declared a saint in April of the following year.
  39. 39. Roman Triptych is the spiritual testament in poetry of the man who will surely come to be known as John Paul the Great. Fully illustrated in colour and with an Introduction by the then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger.
  40. 40. 2004 - FREE CULTURE BY LAWRENCE LESSIG
  41. 41.       Lawrence "Larry" Lessig (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic and political activist. He is a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright, trademark, and radio frequency spectrum, particularly in technology applications. He is director of the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University and the Professor of Law at Harvard Law School. Previously, he was a professor of law at Stanford Law School and founder of the Center for Internet and Society. Lessig is a founding board member of Creative Commons and the founder of Rootstrikers, and is on the board of MapLight.[2] He is on the advisory boards of the Democracy Café,[3] Sunlight Foundation[4] and Americans Elect.[5] He is a former board member of the Free Software Foundation, Software Freedom Law Center and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[6]
  42. 42. 2005 - HAROLD PINTER
  43. 43. BIOGRAPHY:          Born: October 10,1930 Hackney, east London, England Died: 24 December 2008 (aged 78) London, England Caused of his Death: liver cancer Occupation: Playwright, screenwriter, actor, theatre director, poet Nationality: British Period: 1947–2008 Notable award(s) o Companion of Honour (2002)  Nobel Prize in Literature (2005)  Légion d'honneur (2007)  David Cohen Prize (1995)  Laurence Olivier Award (1996) Spouse(s)  Vivien Merchant (1956–1980; divorced)  Lady Antonia Fraser (1980–2008; his death) Children  One son with Merchant,  six stepchildren with Fraser
  44. 44. Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (10 October 1930 – 24 December 2008) was a Nobel Prize-winning English playwright, screenwriter, director and actor.  His best-known plays include The Birthday Party (1957), The Homecoming (1964), and Betrayal (1978), each of which he adapted for the screen. His screenplay adaptations of others' works include The Servant (1963), The Go-Between (1970), The French Lieutenant's Woman (1981), The Trial (1993), and Sleuth (2007).  He also directed or acted in radio, stage, television, and film productions of his own and others' works.  Pinter received over 50 awards, prizes, and other honours, including the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2005 and the French Légion d'honneur in 2007. 
  45. 45. 2006 - THE ROAD BY CORMAC MCCARTHY
  46. 46. BIOGRAPHY:        Born : Charles McCarthy July 20, 1933 (age 80) Providence, Rhode Island, U.S. Occupation: Novelist, playwright Nationality: American Genres : Southern Gothic, Western, Post-apocalyptic Notable work(s): Suttree (1979), Blood Meridian (1985), All the Pretty Horses (1992) (Border Trilogy), No Country for Old Men (2005), The Road (2006) Spouse(s): Lee Holleman (1961–1962; divorced) Annie DeLisle (1967–1981; divorced) Jennifer Winkley (1997–present) Children: Cullen McCarthy, son, b. 1962 (with Lee Holleman) John McCarthy, son, b. 1998 (with Jennifer Winkley)
  47. 47. 2008 - 2666: A NOVEL BY ROBERTO BOLAÑO BIOGRAPHY:  Born: Roberto Bolaño Ávalos 28 April 1953 Santiago, Chile  Died: 15 July 2003 (aged 50) Barcelona, Spain o Caused of his Death: Liver Disease  Occupation: Writer, poet  Language: Spanish
  48. 48. Bolaño Ávalos (28 April 1953 – 15 July 2003) was a Chilean writer, author of novels, short-stories, poems, and essays.  In 1999, Bolaño won the Rómulo Gallegos Prize for his novel Los detectives salvajes (The Savage Detectives)  In 2008 he was posthumously awarded the National Book Critics Circle Award for Fiction for his novel 2666, which was described by board member Marcela Valdes as a "work so rich and dazzling that it will surely draw readers and scholars for ages.  "He has been described by the New York Times as "the most significant Latin American literary  Roberto
  49. 49. BOLAÑO’S WORK: 2666  explores 20th- century degeneration through a wide array of characters, locations, time periods, and stories within stories.  The title of 2666 is typical of the book's mysterious
  50. 50. 2666 SUMMARY: I. "The Part about the Critics" describes a group of four European literary critics who have forged their careers around the elusive German novelist Benno von Archimboldi. Their search for Archimboldi ultimately leads them to the Mexican border town of Santa Teresa in Sonora. II. "The Part about Amalfitano" concentrates on Oscar Amalfitano, a mentally unstable professor of philosophy at the University of Santa Teresa, who fears his daughter will be caught up in the violence of the city.
  51. 51. III. "The Part about Fate" follows Oscar Fate, an American journalist for an African-American interest magazine, who is sent to Santa Teresa to cover a boxing match (despite knowing very little about boxing) but becomes interested in the murders. IV. "The Part about the Crimes" chronicles the murders of dozens of women in Santa Teresa from 1993 to 1997. It also depicts the police force in their mostly fruitless attempts to solve the crimes. V. "The Part about Archimboldi" reveals that the mysterious writer is Hans Reiter, born in 1920 in Prussia. This section explains how a provincial German soldier on the Eastern Front became an
  52. 52. 2009 - THE HUMBLING BY PHILIP ROTH BIOGRAPHY: Born: Philip Milton Roth March 19, 1933 (age 80) Newark, New Jersey, USA Occupation: Novelist Nationality American Period: 1950s–present Genres: Literary fiction Spouse(s) Margaret Martinson Williams (1959-1963) Claire Bloom (19901994)
  53. 53. PHILIP ROTH’S WORK:  The o Humbling is a novel by Philip Roth published in the fall of 2009 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. It is Roth's 30th book and concerns "...an aging stage actor whose empty life is altered by a 'counterplot of unusual erotic desire.'"
  54. 54. THE HUMBLING SUMMARY: PART ONE  Simon Axler is a famed sexagenarian stage actor who suddenly and inexplicably loses his gift. His weak attempts at portraying Prospero and Macbeth on stage at the Kennedy Center in Washington lead to poor reviews, sending Axler into a profound depression and cause him to give up acting and contemplate suicide with a shotgun he keeps in his attic. His wife, Victoria, a former ballerina, is unable to deal with Axler's depression and moves to California, where their son lives. Axler checks himself into a psychiatric hospital on the advice of his physician and stays there for 26
  55. 55.  In the hospital, Axler meets another patient, Sybil Van Buren, who tells him about catching her second husband sexually abusing her young daughter. She expresses shame at not immediately reporting her husband or removing him from the home and admits to attempting suicide. Sybil asks Axler whether he would be willing to kill her husband and he tells her he fears he would "botch the job".  Months after his stint in the hospital, Axler's agent, Jerry Oppenheim, visits him at his upstate New York home to tell him about an offer to play James Tyrone in Long Day's Journey into Night. Axler refuses, fearing another failure. In the fan mail Oppenheim brings, Axler finds a letter from Sybil, thanking him for listening to her problems in the hospital. She says she did not recognize him at the time but decided to write him after catching one of his old movies on TV.
  56. 56. Part two  Pegeen Mike Stapleford, the 40-year-old daughter of two actors he performed with around the time she was born, pays Axler a visit at his house. Pegeen has just moved nearby to work as a professor at a Vermont women's college after ending a six-year relationship with a woman who decided to undergo sex reassignment surgery to become a man. Pegeen's job was secured after she slept with the school's "smitten" dean, Louise Renner.  Simon and Pegeen begin an affair despite Pegeen's having lived as a lesbian for the previous 17 years. Louise is furious that Pegeen
  57. 57.  Months later, Louise calls Pegeen's parents in Lansing, Michigan, to tell them that their daughter is now sleeping with Axler. Pegeen is distressed that her parents have learned about the relationship she wanted kept secret. Her father, Asa, tells her he disapproves because of the age difference but Simon suspects he merely envies his professional success. Asa directs community theater in Michigan. Part three Axler reads in the local newspaper that Sybil has shot and killed her estranged husband. He contacts Sybil's sister and offers to help with her murder defense.  One night, Pegeen "offers" Axler a 19-year-old college student of her acquaintance named Lara. Lara becomes a fantasy of his and a character in Pegeen's sexual roleplaying. Soon after, while Axler and Pegeen are dining out, he notices Tracy, a young woman getting drunk at the restaurant bar, and they take her home for a threesome. 
  58. 58.  Afterward, Axler asks her why she agreed to go home with them, and she admits she recognized him as a famous actor. After this adventure, Axler feels rejuvenated and decides he wants to perform in Long Day's Journey after all. He also decides that he wants to father a child with Pegeen and visits a fertility specialist without telling her.  Two weeks later, Pegeen ends their relationship, telling Axler she "made a mistake." He accuses her of leaving him to be with Tracy and believes Pegeen's parents have turned her against him. He calls her parents, shouting at them in an angry tirade. After the call, Axler kills himself with
  59. 59. LIT 11 ( 8:30 – 9:30 PM )MWF Submitted by: GROUP 15 Capisnon, Rushel Bancale, Laila Aksan, Amiliza Submitted to: Ms. Decasa

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