Frantz Martinache                            Subaru Telescope                          New tools to                      i...
Since 1995, many Extrasolar planets                                      http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/Sunday, May 8, 2011
Before that, one example only...                          small     big, gaseous                          rocky      and/o...
And then: Surprise!                      51 Pegasi                                            Mayor et Queloz, 1995, Natur...
How can that be?                  51 Pegasi                              An exception maybe?Sunday, May 8, 2011
15 years of observations pay off...                                                                 Jupiter               ...
When planets cast shadows...                                          Light curve of HD209458            Transit of Venus,...
Transiting planets teach a lot              HD 209458 is the exoplanet that know the bestSunday, May 8, 2011
Now, where to look?                                   Movie by Olivier GuyonSunday, May 8, 2011
One space mission: Kepler        Launched in 2009        Stares at the same region of the        sky for 3.5-6 years      ...
An incredible harvest            15 confirmed planets, but... 1235 candidates!         Moreover: Earth-like planets appear ...
This is happening in our neighborhood                                  Sagittarius arm                      Orion arm     ...
How about some pictures now?                                              A two-fold difficulty:                           ...
Let’s learn from nature again!                        Total Solar Eclipse, 2001, Olivier Lardière               The Moon i...
... and reproduce this in the lab                                                               Bernard Lyot, 1932        ...
But the problem isn’t quite the same                      The Sun               A star   The coronagraph must operate on a...
It turns out that...                      Alpha Ophiucus                               The image of a star depends on:    ...
Adaptive Optics                                 Simulations by Pr James LloydSunday, May 8, 2011
How much does that help?                             A LOT !!!Sunday, May 8, 2011
We begin to “see” planets                  HR 8799                                             GJ 758           30 Myr old...
Planets within disks                                              Star:                                              Spect...
Planets seen from space                      Star:                      Spectral type: A3V                      Age: 200 M...
The Habitable Zone                                      GJ 758    The window is very shallow... and close to the star  We ...
Taming the light to look closer to stars!                                   SCExAOSunday, May 8, 2011
Extrasolar planets: Subaru is on the hunt        SCExAO                   HiCIAO        Subaru                            ...
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The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011

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Slides of a presentation I gave at the Mauna Kea Visitor Center on May 7, 2011, as part of a series called the Universe Tonight, about extrasolar planets and the means of detecting them. It was followed by a stargazing session on the Visitor Center Parking Lot.

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The Universe Tonight, May 7, 2011

  1. 1. Frantz Martinache Subaru Telescope New tools to image new worldsSunday, May 8, 2011
  2. 2. Since 1995, many Extrasolar planets http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/Sunday, May 8, 2011
  3. 3. Before that, one example only... small big, gaseous rocky and/or icy Our own Solar System! http://www.wikipedia.org For ~ 400 years, astronomers agreed on a theory built from this one single example, that made perfect senseSunday, May 8, 2011
  4. 4. And then: Surprise! 51 Pegasi Mayor et Queloz, 1995, Nature, 378, 355Sunday, May 8, 2011
  5. 5. How can that be? 51 Pegasi An exception maybe?Sunday, May 8, 2011
  6. 6. 15 years of observations pay off... Jupiter Earth ... the Solar System is the exception!Sunday, May 8, 2011
  7. 7. When planets cast shadows... Light curve of HD209458 Transit of Venus, 2004 Images by Olivier Lardière (next one in 2012, visible from Mass + radius ➙ Density Hawaii, the one after: 2117!) Model planet interior Charbonneau et al, 2000, ApJ, 529, L45Sunday, May 8, 2011
  8. 8. Transiting planets teach a lot HD 209458 is the exoplanet that know the bestSunday, May 8, 2011
  9. 9. Now, where to look? Movie by Olivier GuyonSunday, May 8, 2011
  10. 10. One space mission: Kepler Launched in 2009 Stares at the same region of the sky for 3.5-6 years http://kepler.nasa.gov/Sunday, May 8, 2011
  11. 11. An incredible harvest 15 confirmed planets, but... 1235 candidates! Moreover: Earth-like planets appear to be ubiquitousSunday, May 8, 2011
  12. 12. This is happening in our neighborhood Sagittarius arm Orion arm our Galaxy, the Milky WaySunday, May 8, 2011
  13. 13. How about some pictures now? A two-fold difficulty: 51 Pegasi b 1. Stars are bright, planets not so bright: blinded by the star 2. Stars are far: difficult to make star 51 Pegasi and planet apart Euh... we have a problem here.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  14. 14. Let’s learn from nature again! Total Solar Eclipse, 2001, Olivier Lardière The Moon is big/far enough to hide the Sun, and reveal the faint structures in the Solar Corona.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  15. 15. ... and reproduce this in the lab Bernard Lyot, 1932 Les flammes du Soleil (1953) http://www.cerimes.fr/le-catalogue/flammes-du-soleil.htmlSunday, May 8, 2011
  16. 16. But the problem isn’t quite the same The Sun A star The coronagraph must operate on a very small region of the field of view.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  17. 17. It turns out that... Alpha Ophiucus The image of a star depends on: - the telescope itself - the observing conditionsSunday, May 8, 2011
  18. 18. Adaptive Optics Simulations by Pr James LloydSunday, May 8, 2011
  19. 19. How much does that help? A LOT !!!Sunday, May 8, 2011
  20. 20. We begin to “see” planets HR 8799 GJ 758 30 Myr old, 8 Gyr old, 3 (4?) 7Mj planetary companions 30 Mj @ 40 AU Both images were taken right here, from Mauna Kea!Sunday, May 8, 2011
  21. 21. Planets within disks Star: Spectral type: A6V Age: 12 Myr Debris Disk: Warped, signs of comets falling on the central Star Beta Pictoris b Planet: 8 Mj @ 8 AU Lagrange et al, 2008Sunday, May 8, 2011
  22. 22. Planets seen from space Star: Spectral type: A3V Age: 200 Myr Planet: 1 Mj @ 115 AU Imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, at visible wavelength.Sunday, May 8, 2011
  23. 23. The Habitable Zone GJ 758 The window is very shallow... and close to the star We have developed the ideas and the technology to do itSunday, May 8, 2011
  24. 24. Taming the light to look closer to stars! SCExAOSunday, May 8, 2011
  25. 25. Extrasolar planets: Subaru is on the hunt SCExAO HiCIAO Subaru HiCIAO operational and observing since ~2009 Next SCExAO observations: July Stay tuned for results! http://www.scexao.blogspot.com http://www.frantzmartinache.com/blog/Sunday, May 8, 2011

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