The History Of Advertising

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The History Of Advertising

  1. 1. 200 years of American advertising
  2. 2. Preliminary facts <ul><li>a study of cultural history </li></ul><ul><li>a major educator of technology </li></ul><ul><li>no foundational theory </li></ul><ul><li>some tactics that work </li></ul><ul><li>products that have stood the test of time </li></ul>
  3. 3. From the founding of the Republic to World War I (1789 - 1914) The History of Advertising
  4. 4. 1789 - 1800 <ul><li>advertising already well established and imported from England </li></ul><ul><li>43 weekly newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>80% of ad copy was for land, slaves, and transportation </li></ul><ul><li>20% of ad copy was local </li></ul><ul><li>newspapers were made of “rags” </li></ul><ul><li>16 column format - no design </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1789 - 1800: Consumer profile <ul><li>very little discretionary income </li></ul><ul><li>90% rural dwellers and subsistence farmers </li></ul><ul><li>demand for products was substantial, especially for staples such as coffee, salt, hardware, clothes, and tools </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1800 - Civil War (1861 - 1865) <ul><li>Communities grew and got wealthier </li></ul><ul><li>most products advertised and sold locally </li></ul><ul><li>coffee, sugar, liquor, and patent medicines were transported and were the first nationally advertised products </li></ul><ul><li>1850 technological innovation: wood pulp, chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>1868 emergence of first advertising agencies </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Major problems after 1868 : managing demand managing production capacity distribution of products </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of ads : creative billboards and posters newspaper legal format </li></ul><ul><li>By 1861 growth of : magazines and readership </li></ul>1800 - Civil War (1861 - 1865)
  8. 8. Civil War to World War I 1865 - 1914
  9. 9. 1865 - 1914: Major Happenings <ul><li>Wartime shortages a catalyst for developments in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Women enter the labor force in substantial numbers </li></ul><ul><li>The appearance of BRANDING: 1866 Borden’s Eagle Brand 1869 Campbell’s Soup 1873 Levi Strauss 1879 Ivory Soap 1903 Coca Cola </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Bulk packaging (“Cracker Barrel”)gave way to trade marking: Heinz 57 varieties Kellogs Post </li></ul><ul><li>1896 radio was invented </li></ul><ul><li>Photographic innovation </li></ul>1865 - 1914: Major Happenings
  11. 11. A special focus on patent medicines
  12. 12. <ul><li>the identification and development of advertising locations and target marketing </li></ul><ul><li>the birth of the American magazine </li></ul><ul><li>the birth of catalogs, e.g., Montgomery Ward in 1872 </li></ul><ul><li>regulation of advertising rates </li></ul><ul><li>regulation of advertising content </li></ul><ul><li>development of creative advertising </li></ul>The importance of patent medicines
  13. 13. By 1914 everything we know as advertising today was already in place in the U.S.
  14. 14. World War I to 1990 (1914-1990) The History of Advertising
  15. 15. Some major inventions and events that changed the appearance of American Advertising just prior to WW I
  16. 16. Major Events and Inventions <ul><li>The invention of asprin : Pure Food and Drug Act death of patent medicine era </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of the automobile : savage ad campaigns development of highways development of transportation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government buys ad space war bonds, recruitment, relief programs </li></ul>
  17. 17. Major Images prior to WW I <ul><li>Women : idealized visions two alternative images women making consumption choices identity linked closely to family </li></ul><ul><li>Men: success climbing the corporate ladder </li></ul>
  18. 18. Product images prior to WW I <ul><li>Cosmetics and product for appearance </li></ul><ul><li>distant real estates and travel </li></ul><ul><li>endless stream of new inventions: electric light bulbs hand irons vacuum cleaners washing machines telephones gramophones </li></ul>
  19. 19. The War Years 1914-1918
  20. 20. And then came the . . . . . 1930s Depression
  21. 21. 1930s The Great Depression <ul><li>the better life crumpled </li></ul><ul><li>prosperity collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>many advertising agencies were wiped out </li></ul><ul><li>collapse of consumer demand </li></ul>
  22. 22. 1935 - 1939 <ul><li>market research was born </li></ul><ul><li>ad copy turned strictly “hard sell” image </li></ul><ul><li>age of advertising regulation was born </li></ul><ul><li>the consumer movement started </li></ul><ul><li>radio as a medium of advertising became very popular </li></ul><ul><li>national magazines were plentiful and had audiences of millions </li></ul>
  23. 23. The War Years 1939-1945
  24. 24. The Post War Years 1945-1960
  25. 25. Post War Period: 1945-1960 <ul><li>economic boom </li></ul><ul><li>baby boom </li></ul><ul><li>demand boom </li></ul><ul><li>and the advent of. . . . . TELEVISION </li></ul>
  26. 26. Advertising’s Maturity 1960-1990 +
  27. 27. 1960-1990+ <ul><li>the design revolution and the birth of graphic art profession </li></ul><ul><li>“ boutique” advertising agencies </li></ul><ul><li>decline of the era of the American magazine </li></ul><ul><li>birth of strategic and target marketing </li></ul>
  28. 28. And then briefly . . . . sexual images in advertising
  29. 29. Sexual images in advertising <ul><li>1850s patent medicine ads </li></ul><ul><li>1880 fully clothed women </li></ul><ul><li>1889 even ankles were taboo </li></ul><ul><li>1913 ads were often “doctored” </li></ul><ul><li>1915 silk hose become accessible </li></ul><ul><li>1920 the “Flapper” era </li></ul><ul><li>1925 respectable standards were falling </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>1936 first female nudity </li></ul><ul><li>1947 Elliot White Springs </li></ul><ul><li>1950s images </li></ul><ul><li>1960s images </li></ul><ul><li>1970s images </li></ul><ul><li>1980s images </li></ul><ul><li>1990s images </li></ul>Sexual images in advertising

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