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2nd semester grammar book

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2nd semester grammar book

  1. 1. El LibroGramatica<br />By, Helena King<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Conditional and Irregulars<br />Perfect Tenses<br />*present<br />*past <br />*present perfect<br /> irregulars<br /> *subjunctive perfect<br />Tanto y Tan<br />Impersonal Se<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br /><ul><li>Los Mandatos(Informal and Formal) *Affirmative</li></ul> *Negative<br /> *Irregular<br /> *DOP+IOP placement<br /><ul><li>Nosotros Commands *-mono verbs
  3. 3. Subjunctive + irregulars</li></ul> *Trigger phrases <br />*Impersonal Expressions<br /> *Expressions of Emotions<br /> *Conjunctions of time<br /><ul><li>Demonstrative Adjectives +Pronouns </li></li></ul><li>Conditional and Irregulars<br />infinitive + ending<br />*yo habría<br />*ella comería<br />
  4. 4. Present Perfect<br />*formed with present tense of haber and the past participle<br />*Yo he comido<br />*He vivido<br />
  5. 5. Past Perfect<br />*Juan había abierto las puertas<br />*Yohabíacomido<br />*used to say you had done something<br />
  6. 6. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />*verbs irregularin the past participle<br />
  7. 7. Perfect Subjunctive<br />Subjunctive+Haber+Past Participle<br />*Hayaestudiado<br />*Hayashablado<br />*Hayansalido<br />
  8. 8. Tanto y Tan<br />*used to show things are the same<br />tan + adjective (adverb) + como<br />El chica es tan alta como la chico.<br />tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como<br />Choose the form of tanto to agree with the noun it modifies.<br />Tiene tantos libros como ella.<br />
  9. 9. Se hablaEspañolaqui.<br /> -Spanish is spoken here.<br />No se permite la comida en el teatro.<br /> -No foodisallowed in thetheater.<br />Se prohibe fumar.<br /> -Smoking isprohibited<br />Se Impersonal<br />
  10. 10. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Saber<br />Conocer<br /><ul><li>Know facts
  11. 11. Know information
  12. 12. Know a person, place, or thing</li></ul>Yoséjugar al fútbol.<br />Nosotrosconocemos la ciudad.<br />
  13. 13. Informal Commands<br />Negatives<br />Affirmatives<br />Irregular <br />Regular <br />Regular<br />Irregular <br />Put in yo form, change to opposite vowel and add an ‘s’<br />Di, haz, ve,pon, sal, se, ten, ven<br />Conjugate in tu form and drop the ‘s’<br />Tengas, vengas, digas/des, vayas, seas, hagas, estes, se<br />Or put in the tu, stem change, and drop ‘s’<br />Or put in yo form, change to oppostie vowel and add an ‘s’<br />Add pronoun if necessary<br />Place pronoun before the verb<br />
  14. 14. Formal Commands<br />Usted<br />Ustedes<br />Irregulars<br />Ar e<br />Er/Ir  a<br />Yo form of verb, drop the O and add the opposite endingof the third plural form<br />Ar en<br />Er/Ir  an<br />CAR, GAR, ZAR verbs require spelling changes<br />Yo form of verb, drop the O and add the opposite endings<br />GO to GA (Present tense irregular Yo form verbs <br />*Add no in front to form a negative command<br />*DOP attaches to end of affirmative<br />*DOP placed in front of verb in negative<br />
  15. 15. Nosotros Commands<br />
  16. 16. Subjunctive<br />Hablar-->Yo hable<br />Jugar-->Tu juegues <br />Ser-->Yo sea<br />Escribir-->Tu escribas<br />
  17. 17. Subjunctive Trigger Words<br />
  18. 18. Impersonal Expressions<br />
  19. 19. Expressions of Emotions With Subjunctive<br />*The infinitive of the verb is used if there is no change in subject<br /> -Temollegartarde<br />*If there is a change in subject then the subjunctive is used<br /> -Temoquemisetsudianteslleguentarde.<br />Other Examples:<br />*Me alegro de que tú sonrías<br />*Siento mucho que no<br /> puedan venir a la fiesta<br />
  20. 20. Conjunctions of Time<br />
  21. 21. Demonstrative Adjectives/Pronouns<br />Adjectives<br />Pronouns<br />

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