Art & Science of Flavor & Fragrance Creation


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Art & Science of Flavor & Fragrance Creation

  1. 1. The Art & Science of Fragrance & Flavor Creation Society of Flavor Chemist’s December 4, 2003 John C. Leffingwell
  2. 2. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Conventional Market View – U.S. $15 Billion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Conventional Market View – U.S. $15 Billion </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Conventional Market View – U.S. $15 Billion </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The Real Market – U.S. $30 Billion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Fragrance & Flavor - The shaping of history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prehistory - Culinary & Fragrant Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circa 7000 BC – Fragrant plants and spices infused in the fatty oils of Olive & Sesame for use as ointments </li></ul></ul>Earliest items of commerce were most likely spices, gums and other fragrant plants .
  7. 7. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3000 BC – Indus Valley (Pakistan) - terra-cotta perfume containers and a primitive still - place it 3,000 years earlier than most sources date the invention of distillation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000 BC – Egyptians– when learning to write and make bricks, were already importing large quantities of myrrh. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Perfume Vessel Symbolizing Unification - Reign of Tutankhamon Calcite pots filled with spices such as frankincense preserved in fat still gave off a faint odor when opened in King Tutankhamen's tomb after 3,000 years Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history - Egypt </li></ul>
  9. 9. By the 7th century BC, Athens had developed into a mercantile center in which hundreds of perfumers set up shop. Trade was heavy in fragrant herbs such as marjoram, lily, thyme, sage, anise, rose and iris, infused into olive, almond, castor and linseed oils to make thick unguents. These were sold in small, elaborately decorated ceramic pots, similar to the small jars still sold in Athens today. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Greece </li></ul>Greek Perfume Urns
  10. 10. <ul><li>Leucippus and Democritus – Fathers of the Atomic </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul>Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Greece circa 400 BC </li></ul>Still of Democritus <ul><li>The first firm documentary evidence of the </li></ul><ul><li>distillation of essential oils is Herodotus' record </li></ul><ul><li>of the method of distilling turpentine from 425 B.C. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Perfume basics - 300 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socrates’ classmate, Theophrastus, sent plant cuttings obtained during his extensive travels, thus establishing a botanical garden in Athens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theophrastus' treatise “On Odors” covered all the basics: blending perfumes, shelf life, using wine with aromatics, substances that carry scent, and the effect of odor on the mind and body. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – International Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As trade routes expanded, Africa, South Arabia and India began to supply spikenard and ginger to Middle Eastern and Mediterranean civilization. Phoenician merchants traded in Chinese camphor and Indian cinnamon, pepper and sandalwood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True myrrh and frankincense from Yemen reached the Mediterranean by 300 BC, by way of Persian traders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand increased for roses, sweet flag, orris root, narcissus, saffron, mastic, oak moss, cinnamon, cardamom, pepper, nutmeg, ginger, costus, spikenard, aloewood, grasses and gum resins. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. By the 1st century AD, Rome was using about 2,800 tons of imported frankincense and 550 tons of myrrh per year. Nero, Roman emperor in 54 AD, spent the equivalent of $100,000 to scent just one party he was giving . No “Orgy” was complete without perfume. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Rome </li></ul>
  14. 14. Former Tyco CEO Dennis Kozlowski Today’s Nero Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The Modern Toga Party </li></ul>
  15. 15. &quot;Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment.&quot; John 12:3 Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Biblical Times </li></ul>Fragrance occurs, at least symbolically, throughout the New Testament. The frankincense and myrrh brought to the Christ child were more valuable than the gift of gold (if indeed it was gold; some speculate that the three wise men may have been carrying gold-colored, fragrant ambergris).
  16. 16. Mary Prophetissa (Prophetissima) aka Maria the Jewess Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – 1 ST Century AD </li></ul>Invented the double boiler, also known as a Bain Marie, or Mary's Bath… as well as the first true still which she called the tribokos.  It consisted of copper tubing, ceramic pottery, and metal.  When heated, vapors from plant material and water would condense on the inside of the still, then trickle down and collect in a bottle. The tribokos
  17. 17. Mary Prophetissa (Prophetissima) aka Maria the Jewess Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – 1 ST Century AD </li></ul>Her design and many later modifications were used to distill essential oils, but also proved useful for alcoholic beverages. And with the still dawned the new Age of Alchemy
  18. 18. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) – a famous Arab physician and alchemist that wrote over 400 books on medicine, philosophy, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic, is credited with significantly improving the art of distillation by adding a water cooled jacket around the cooling coil. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – 10 -11 th Century AD </li></ul>
  19. 19. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – 10-14 th Century AD </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabs used their new technique to distill ethyl alcohol (ethanol) from fermented sugar, providing a new solvent for the extraction of plant oils in place of the fatty oils that had been used for millennia. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of distillation gradually spread around Europe through trading and crusading until essential oils had become a specialty of mediaeval pharmacies. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential oils were so-named because they were thought to represent the very essence of odor, flavor & life. Their extraction was researched by alchemists in their search for the philosophers' stone that would turn common metals into gold. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><li>1271 - Marco Polo, at the age of seventeen years, embarked from Venice with his father and uncle on a trip that would last 24 years – and bring knowledge of the Orient and trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo lived for 16 years in China where he was employed for several years by Kublai Khan. He left China in 1292, returning to Venice (1295), and fought against the Genoese, but was captured. </li></ul><ul><li>In prison he wrote of his adventures in 'Travels of Marco Polo' - a book which instantly fired the imagination of all Medieval Europe – and spurred a competition among nations that would last 500 years. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Marco Polo </li></ul>
  22. 22. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Influence of Spice Trade </li></ul><ul><li>In the 13th and 14th centuries, Italy monopolized the European Spice & Perfume material trade that had begun during the Crusades. </li></ul><ul><li>One purpose of Marco Polo's journey to China was to bypass Moslem middlemen and their 300 percent markup in price by convincing the Orient to trade directly with Venice. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – The Age of Exploration </li></ul><ul><li>1492 - Columbus discovered the Americas while looking for the spice islands of the Orient. </li></ul><ul><li>Although, at the time, this failure was a great disappointment – there were many treasures that resulted. Vast quantities of gold, silver as well as new culinary items such as chocolate (cocoa). </li></ul><ul><li>New fragrant treasures such as Vanilla, balsam of Peru and Tolu, juniper, American cedar and sassafras soon became available to Europeans. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Influence of Spice Trade </li></ul><ul><li>1497 - Vasco da Gama departs Lisbon Portugal to discover the sea passage to the distant spice Indies. </li></ul><ul><li>1498 - Vasco da Gama arrives in India by rounding Africa via the Cape of Good Hope and Portugal becomes the ruler of the Indian ocean for nearly 150 years . </li></ul>
  25. 25. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – The Age of Colonization </li></ul><ul><li>1602 - Dutch East India Company granted a monopoly on the trade in the East Indies. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose - trading spices like nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon and pepper, tea, silk and porcelain </li></ul><ul><li>And – to prevent other European nations from entering the East Indies for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 31, 1600 - Queen Elizabeth I grants a Royal Charter to the East India Company, but the Dutch massacre of the English at Amboyna in 1623 reduced them initially to picking up scraps of trade, either by piracy or dealing with intermediaries . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – The Age of Colonization </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid 1600’s – the Dutch had driven the British and Portuguese from Indonesia, Malaya, and Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and controlled the fabulous trade of the Spice Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>1621 - the Dutch started a West India Company, which established the American province of New Netherland in 1624, and reputedly purchased what is now New York from the Native Americans for the equivalent of $24. </li></ul><ul><li>1664 - the English capture New Netherland </li></ul><ul><li>1673 - New York was recaptured by a Dutch fleet </li></ul><ul><li>1674 – The English negotiate peace and trade a small island off Indonesia (Rhun) for New York. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – Spice Wars </li></ul><ul><li>New York traded for Rhun – the best Nutmeg island </li></ul>
  28. 28. Quite A Trade Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science
  29. 29. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The New Perfumers </li></ul><ul><li>Perfumed leather gloves became popular in France and in 1656, the guild of glove and perfume-makers was established in Grasse. The use of perfume in France grew steadily. The court of Louis XV was even named “the perfumed court”. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1732, when the Italian Giovanni Maria Farina took over his uncle's business in Cologne, he produced aqua admirabilis, a lively blend of neroli, bergamot, lavender and rosemary in rectified grape spirit. This was splashed on the skin, and also used for treating sore gums and indigestion. French soldiers later stationed there dubbed it “eau de Cologne”. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – France & Perfume </li></ul>16 th & 17 th centuries - Southern France (Grasse) becomes a center of expertise for the growing, extraction and distillation of essential oils. France becomes the the Perfume center of the world. Large scale cultivation & processing of valuable plants for oils such as rose soon was centered there. And raw materials from around the world were imported for processing. Extraction & distillation techniques were refined.
  31. 31. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The shaping of history – France & Perfume </li></ul>
  32. 32. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Grasse France – The Center of Perfumery </li></ul>Perfume Factory - Grasse Lavender field near Grasse
  33. 33. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The Perfumers – Enfleurage process </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers such as Jasmine are laid out on trays of fat that absorb the fragrance. The fat is later extracted with alcohol,and then concentrated into an absolute. </li></ul>Jasmine flowers laid out on the fat Grasse - Chiris factory - early 20th century Preparing the frame with fat
  34. 34. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The Production of Rose Oil </li></ul>
  35. 35. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The Production of Rose Oil </li></ul>
  36. 36. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The new partner – The Organic Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1800’s - From Germany came a new breed of Chemist that would revolutionize industry and bring an end to “Alchemy”. This type chemist used the scientific method to unravel chemical structures and create materials from coal, petroleum and other materials. </li></ul><ul><li>1855 – First synthesis of cinnamaldehyde </li></ul><ul><li>1868 – Commercial production of coumarin – the first synthetic fragrance chemical </li></ul><ul><li>1874 – Chemical structure of vanillin determined. </li></ul><ul><li>1876 – Synthetic vanillin production starts. </li></ul><ul><li>1850 to 1900 – Significant advances in elucidating </li></ul><ul><li>major chemicals in Essential oils . </li></ul>
  37. 37. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The new partner – The Organic Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>Helps elucidate many of the C 10 H 16 group terpene structures present in essential oils utilizing common reagents such as hydrogen chloride and hydrogen bromide. In 1909 he published the results of his extensive studies in the book Terpene und Campher , a volume of 600 pages dedicated to his pupils. </li></ul>beta-Pinene alpha-Pinene Camphene Camphor <ul><li>Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910 – Otto Wallach </li></ul>
  38. 38. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The new partner – The Organic Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>In the perfumery and sesquiterpene domain - the total </li></ul><ul><li>syntheses of nerolidol and farnesol. </li></ul><ul><li>From Jasmine - established the structure of jasmone. </li></ul><ul><li>Elucidated the structures of the naturally occurring </li></ul><ul><li>musk perfumes, civetone and muscone thus replacing </li></ul><ul><li>scents prized since antiquity – but only available from </li></ul><ul><li>endangered species. </li></ul>Civetone Muscone Civet Cat Viverra civetta Musk Deer Moschus moschiferus L. <ul><li>Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939 - Leopold Ruzicka </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>The new partner – The Organic Chemist </li></ul><ul><li>For chirally catalyzed hydrogenation reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>In perfumery and flavors - the chiral (asymmetric) </li></ul><ul><li>synthesis of Menthol & many other fragrance & flavor </li></ul><ul><li>compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>In the chiral synthesis of pharmaceutical & photochromic </li></ul><ul><li>materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001 - Ryoji Noyori </li></ul>Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science
  40. 40. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The new partner – The Organic Chemist </li></ul>beta-Pinene Myrcene Linalool Geraniol Citronellol Citronellal Menthol Linalyl Acetate <ul><li>1950’s – Bain & Webb – Turpentine into Fragrance & Flavor </li></ul>
  41. 41. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry </li></ul>GC- MS analysis Detective work Distillation & extraction Volatiles from a living flower
  42. 42. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry </li></ul>12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 22.00 24.00 26.00 28.00 30.00 32.00 34.00 36.00 0 2000000 4000000 6000000 8000000 1e+07 1.2e+07 1.4e+07 1.6e+07 Time--> Abundance GC-MS Analysis of a Meat Flavor Peak Identified as Furfuryl Mercaptan Powerful Coffee Aroma Peaks are 2-Methyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-3-thiol isomers Powerful meat-like aroma
  43. 43. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry </li></ul>
  44. 44. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Rose oil – What’s Important </li></ul>Odor Unit = Concentration Odor Threshold
  45. 45. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Perfumery - The Image of an Artist </li></ul>Parfume de Campange by Guy Begin
  46. 46. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>The Perfumer – An artist with a different palette </li></ul>
  47. 47. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Marketing- The Image </li></ul><ul><li>The Allure of Perfume is popularized by marketing </li></ul>France - late 19th century France - circa 1935 Spain - 1903
  48. 48. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Marketing- The Image </li></ul><ul><li>The Allure of Perfume is popularized by marketing </li></ul>Zica-Alexa - Year 2000
  49. 49. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science Multidisciplinary Fields <ul><li>Flavors – Food Science </li></ul><ul><li>Food Products </li></ul><ul><li>Beverages </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing Gum/ Mouthwash/ Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Fragrances </li></ul><ul><li>Perfume </li></ul><ul><li>Soap/ Detergent /Air Fresheners / Aromatherapy </li></ul>OLFACTION & GUSTATION
  50. 50. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>Chemistry/ Biology/ Physiology/ Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>- Organic Chemistry – Synthetic, Molecular structure, </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Genomics, </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy, Neuroscience, Bioinformatics </li></ul><ul><li>- Analytical Chemistry – GC-MS analysis, Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>- Physical Chemistry – Emulsions, Light scattering, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>- Psychological aspects of perception – other influences </li></ul>OLFACTION & GUSTATION Multidisciplinary Fields <ul><li>Computer Science – for all of the above + </li></ul>
  51. 51. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science Taste Buds in epithelium of tongue, soft palate, pharynx, larynx and epiglottis. 2000-5000 taste buds in humans, but large variation. Taste (Gustation) - sensitivity to substances in solution TASTE = GUSTATION
  52. 52. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science TASTE = GUSTATION <ul><li>Until the mid 1990’s only 4 taste sensations </li></ul><ul><li>were recognized: </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet – e.g. Sucrose, Aspartame </li></ul><ul><li>Sour – e.g. Citric acid, Phosphoric acid (H + ions) </li></ul><ul><li>Bitter – e.g. Quinine </li></ul><ul><li>Salty – Sodium Chloride </li></ul>A 5 th taste sensation called “Umani” is now recognized. Most common example is MSG (Monosodium glutamate) which enhances meat flavor.
  53. 53. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science Smell (Olfaction) - sensitivity to substances in gaseous phase - a distant sense SMELL = OLFACTION
  54. 54. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science How We Smell - Odorants are volatile chemicals carried by inhaled air to the Regio olfactoria (olfactory epithelium) located in the roof of the two nasal cavities of the human nose, just below and between the eyes. The olfactory region of each of the two nasal passages in humans is a small area of about 2.5 square centimeters containing in total approximately 50 million primary sensory receptor cells. Olfactory Region (Regio olfactoria)
  55. 55. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>New Technology – How We Smell </li></ul>The olfactory region consists of cilia projecting down out of the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory cilia are the sites where molecular reception with the odorant occurs and sensory transduction (i.e., transmission) starts. Olfactory Tract Mitral Cell Olfactory Nerve Olfactory Bulb Olfactory Epithelium Mucosa Air and Odorant Molecules Cilia in Mucosa Olfactory Receptor Neurons Glomerulli Olfactory Nerve Filaments Cribiform (bone) Axons
  56. 56. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>New Technology – Understanding Scent </li></ul>Elucidation of Olfactory G-Protein Receptor Structures - a result of Genome Research Different Views of G-Protein Receptor Structures 900+ Human Olfactory Receptor Genes Identified – D. Lancet ~600 Pseudogenes + ~300 Intact Genes
  57. 57. Putative Binding cavity in Human OR1.04.06 derived using CastP <ul><li>New Technology – Understanding Scent </li></ul>Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science
  58. 58. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science Computer Modeling of New Odorants Olfactophoric Model of Sandalwood Odorants Javanol (Yellow) vs. beta-Santalol (Blue)
  59. 59. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science <ul><li>New Technology – Digital Scent </li></ul>Hardware and software platforms for incorporating scent into all forms of media... Peripheral devices that recreate thousands of scents on demand. Authoring tools for the creation of &quot;scent scores&quot; for movies, music, and interactive games. Software that plays scented media, such as videos, music and DVD's. Systems for transmitting scent with music and movies over the Internet. And…for the Perfumer & Flavorist – A new tool for composing creations.                
  60. 60. Fragrance & Flavor – Art & Science The Proof is in the Pudding Chef’s and flavor application specialists determine use levels and food applications. Flavor Research