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Organic Light Emitting Diode

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Organic Light Emitting Diode

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  • Light and its nature have caused a lot of ink to flow during these last decades. Its dual behavior is partly explained by (1)Double-slit experiment of Thomas Young - who represents the photon’s motion as a wave - and also by (2)the Photoelectric effect in which the photon is considered as a particle. A Revolution: SALEH THEORY solves this ambiguity and this difficulty presenting a three-dimensional trajectory for the photon's motion and a new formula to calculate its energy. More information on : https://youtu.be/mLtpARXuMbM https://www.slideshare.net/SalehTheory/saleh-theory?qid=e7da2b84-6d5e-409d-8b12-cae0f58a825b&v=&b=&from_search=1
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Organic Light Emitting Diode

  1. 2. What is an OLED? <ul><li>OLED - O rganic L ight E mitting D iode </li></ul><ul><li>An OLED is a light emitting diode (LED) which emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. </li></ul>
  2. 3. History of OLEDs <ul><ul><li>First developed in the early 1950s in France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s-AC-driven electroluminescent cells using doped anthracene was developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1987 Chin Tang and Van Slyke introduced the first light emitting diodes from thin organic layers.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1990 electroluminescence in polymers was discovered.  </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Architecture of OLEDs <ul><ul><li>Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) - The substrate supports the OLED. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anode (transparent) - The anode removes electrons (adds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electron &quot;holes&quot;) when a current flows through the device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic layer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting layer -This layer is ma-de of organic plastic molecules that transport &quot;holes&quot; from the anode. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emissive layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode; this is where light is made. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) - The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Types of OLEDs <ul><li>Passive OLEDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organic layer is between strips of cathode and anode that run perpendicular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The intersections form the pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use more power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best for small screens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active OLEDs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full layers of cathode and anode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anode over lays a thin film transistor ( TFT ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires less power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher refresh rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for large screens </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Applications of OLEDs <ul><ul><li>Televisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SONY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LG transparent TV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell Phone screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrist Watch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laptops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desktops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Optimus Maximus Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OCZ Keyboard etc…… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KODAK Easy share LS633 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bendable Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable Device displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philips Go Gear MP3 Player </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Advantages of OLEDs <ul><ul><li>Faster response time than LCDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consume significantly less energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be transparent when off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible and Conformal Displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinner display-No backlight required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better contrast ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer for the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider viewing angles ; up to 170 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLEDs refresh almost 1,000 times faster then LCDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost materials and fabrication method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Expensive than LCD due to lesser components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be printed onto a wide variety(flexible) of substrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be made using plastic screens; LCDs require glass backing </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Disadvantages of OLEDs <ul><ul><li>OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays, but it also has some problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime  - While red and green OLED films have longer lifetimes (46,000 to 230,000 hours), blue organics currently have much shorter lifetimes (up to around 14,000 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing  - Currently, manufacturing is more expensive than LCDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water  - Water can easily damage OLEDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLED screens are even worse than LCD in direct sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall luminance degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited market availability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 9. Current Research for OLEDs <ul><ul><li>Manufacturers focusing on finding a cheap way to produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot; Roll-to-Roll &quot; Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing efficiency of blue luminance  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boosting overall lifespan </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Future Uses for OLED <ul><ul><li>Will capture emerging market of wearable displays (Nokia 888) (Wearable OLEDs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will capture the low-power electronics market (cell phones and PDAs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll able Display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wallpaper lighting defining new ways to light a space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent lighting doubles as a window </li></ul></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 11. Future Uses for OLED <ul><ul><li>Data glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS system  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OLED – in future cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curved OLED displays, placed on non-flat surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And many more we cannot even imagine today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scroll Laptop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia concept OLED Laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 12. References <ul><ul><li>http://impnerd.com/the-history-and-future-of-oled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_light-emitting_diode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.oled-research.com/oleds/oleds-history.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.voidspace.org.uk/technology/top_ten_phone_techs.shtml#keep-your-eye-on-flexible-displays-coming-soon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/news.phtml/23150/24174/samsung-say-oled-not-ready.phtml </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.cepro.com/article/study_future_bright_for_oled_lighting_market/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.technologyreview.com/energy/21116/page1/  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://optics.org/cws/article/industry/37032  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://jalopnik.com/5154953/samsung-transparent-oled-display-pitched-as-automotive-hud </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Thank You
  13. 14. Electroluminescence  (EL) is an optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to an electric current passed through it, or to a strong electric field
  14. 15. An  organic compound  is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
  15. 16. A  pixel (or picture element) is the smallest item of information in an image
  16. 17. A  thin-film transistor  ( TFT ) is a special kind of field-effect transistor made by depositing thin films of a semiconductor active layer.
  17. 18. The  refresh rate  is the number of times in a second that display hardware draws the data it is being given
  18. 19. Optimus Maximus Keyboard <ul><ul><li>Small OLED screen on every key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>113 OLED screens total </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each key can be programmed to preform a series of functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keys can be linked to applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display notes, numerals, special symbols, HTML codes, etc... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SD card slot for storing settings </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Kodak LS633 Easy Share with OLED display Kodak was the first to release a digital camera with an OLED display in March 2003, the Easy Share LS633($168) Current and Future OLED Applications
  20. 21. The Sony . 11-inch XEL-1 OLED TV <ul><li>The SONY XEL-1 released in December 2007 for customers in Japan. 200,000 Yen -- or about $1,700 U.S (Rs 8L+) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Released XEL-1 in February 2009.(Worldwide)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$2500 USD(Rs 12L+) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First OLED TV sold in sold in America. . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11'' screen, 3mm thin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighs approximately 1.9 kg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide 178 degree viewing angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000,000:1 Contrast ratio </li></ul></ul>The SONY XEL-1 TVs almost as thin as a credit card
  21. 22. Samsung's 40-inch OLED TV LG Display 19-inch OLED Flexible OLED
  22. 23. <ul><li>The flexible OLED element capable of being produced using roll-to-roll printing technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The ROLLED project under European researchers coordinated by VTT </li></ul>Roll-to-Roll printing technology.
  23. 24. Fast response time means full motion graphics can be displayed OLED LCD Fast Response Time
  24. 25. Constant Contrast Ratio – wide viewing angle
  25. 26. Shown here is a fanciful digital rough for an OLED flexible digital wallpaper environment. Printing OLEDs onto flexible substrates opens the door to new applications such as roll-up displays, wallpaper and displays embedded in fabrics or clothing Digital Wallpaper .
  26. 27. OCZ OLED Keyboard <ul><li>OCZ are calling it ‘The World’s Most Intelligent Gaming Keyboard’ </li></ul><ul><li>9 programmable OLED keys , which are designed to help manage time and efficiency while gaming, surfing the web, emailing or for custom tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>The OLED Keys can display any image or text as a custom icon, and can programmed with any custom shortcut you want, </li></ul><ul><li>it comes with 128MB of built in memory and features a total of 103 keys. </li></ul><ul><li>OCZ haven’t announced any price yet. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Philips has announced the Go Gear 2940 MP3 player. </li></ul><ul><li>The gadget comes equipped with a color OLED display </li></ul><ul><li>Supports off course MP3, WAV and WMA files. </li></ul><ul><li>Include an integrated equalizer, USB 2.0 connectivity, voice recording capability and a built-in FM tuner. </li></ul><ul><li>No idea on pricing </li></ul>Philips Go Gear 2940 MP3 Player(OLED)
  28. 30. A flexible OLED display that can be rolled around the main electronics core but, when charged, automatically stiffens with minimal bezel surround.
  29. 31. <ul><li>This device supports an OLED display and is powered by blue methyl alcohol fuel instead of a regular lithium-ion battery. </li></ul><ul><li>The batteries of the LG e-Book use natural gas, methanol, and other eco-friendly liquid fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>The fuel is stored in a transparent cylindrical hinge. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike LCD, OLED does not need a frame around it, and it consumes less electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>The keypad will also be made of a singe OLED panel </li></ul>LG's &quot;E-Book&quot; Laptop
  30. 32. Bendable OLED Display Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology is threatening the Liquid Crystal Display, or LCD, standard because of its flexibility, low power consumption and versatility.
  31. 33. OLED Data glass <ul><li>Developed by Students at the Fraunhofer Institute in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>A pair of interactive data eyeglasses that can project an image onto the retina from an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) micro-display, making the image appear as if it's a meter in front of the wearer. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar headwear only throws up a static image, </li></ul><ul><li>Just the movement of the eyeball, to scroll through information </li></ul>
  32. 34. In direct sunlight Nokia N00 OLED Display Apple iPHONE LCD Display
  33. 35. OLED-in future cars <ul><li>Even today, we can see several interesting usages for OLED displays/lighting in cars: </li></ul><ul><li>Dashboard displays </li></ul><ul><li>Windshield transparent OLEDs </li></ul><ul><li>Internal lighting </li></ul><ul><li>External lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Back-window alerts and messaging </li></ul>
  34. 36. JVG 3 mm OLED TV
  35. 38. It may only be 4&quot; across (diagonally) and 320x240 pixels at the moment but this flexible transparent OLED display has massive implications for how we use and interact with technology in the future. 4&quot; flexible transparent OLED from LG
  36. 39. The HP LiM concept, which stands for Less is More, features a 19&quot; transparent OLED touch screen with a wireless keyboard. 19“ Transparent OLED  
  37. 40. TIWE OLED Wrist Watch <ul><li>The OLED TIWE (like TIME, but with the M upside down!) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a concept by designer Lv Zhogfang. </li></ul><ul><li>It normally displays a bunch of little white balls (&quot;stars&quot;) randomly floating around the face. But when you give it a shake or tap on the glass, the balls come together to show the time in an analogue style </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Designed by Rodrigo Mercado. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nokia Scroll OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) is </li></ul><ul><li>concept laptop that basically almost makes it paper thin. </li></ul><ul><li>Its touch-sensitive surface. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no mouse or keyboard incorporated into the concept. </li></ul><ul><li>The screen should be nice and bright with clear and crisp image </li></ul><ul><li>quality. </li></ul><ul><li>It would also have excellent battery life. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be super lightweight. OLED displays also have fast </li></ul><ul><li>pixel response times, practically turning off and on in an instant, </li></ul><ul><li>unlike LCD panels. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s only a concept. </li></ul>Nokia Scroll OLED Laptop

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