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UW CCDE Cross Cultural Communication

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Humans communicate on many levels: spoken language, tone, body language, style and personality. The fact that we have complex cultural identities and a host of differing past experiences increases the probability of cross-cultural miscommunications. This workshop presents major cross-cultural communication theories, ways that cultural values, power, privilege and differences affect the way we communicate, tools for questioning assumptions, and ways to improve cross-cultural communications skills.

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UW CCDE Cross Cultural Communication

  1. 1. What I Said and What I Meant: Cross Cultural Communication Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee) University of Washington Center for Communication, Difference, and Equity (CCDE) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Seattle Girls’ School
  2. 2. About Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  3. 3. Agenda  Cultural Competency  Cross Cultural Communication  Discussion: My Communication Style  Cultural Identifiers, Power, and Communication  Discussion: Conflict Re-understood  So What? Now What? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  4. 4. Culture [consists] primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies… It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another. James A. Banks What is Culture? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  5. 5. Cultural Competency Cultural competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, institution or individual and enable that system, institution or individual to work effectively in cross- cultural situations. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee) Terry Cross
  6. 6. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee) The Jones Model of Cultural Competence Cultural Self- Awareness Cultural Intelligence Cross-Cultural Effectiveness Skills Countering Oppression through Inclusion
  7. 7. Race Religion Class Gender Sexual Orientation Ability Age Ethnicity Geographic Location Language Educational Attainment Appearance Seniority Position or Title Status Relationship To Power Players InternalExternal Institutional Dimensions of Identity and Culture Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  8. 8.  What is it?  How is it Different from Intercultural Communication?  CCC Theories – Face-Negotiation Theory – Conversational Constraints Theory – Expectancy Violation Theory – Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory – Communication Accommodation Theory Cross Cultural Communication Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  9. 9. Individual - Collectivistic Low Context - High Context Task - Relationship Low Uncertainty - High Uncertainty Vertical - Horizontal Dimensions of Variability Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  10. 10.  Personality Orientation  Individual Values - Allocentric - Idiocentric  Self Construal - Independent - Interdependent  Individual Socialization  Cultural Norms and Rules Factors that Influence Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  11. 11. Discussion: My Style In hearing about communication differences, what would you describe as your cultural communication style? Have you noticed stark differences compared to others? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  12. 12. Cultural Values Norms, and Rules  Values  Value Priorities  Norms of Behavior  Non-Verbal Communication Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  13. 13. CulturalValueDifferences RELATIONAL Individualism self-reliance, independence (selfish) Collectivism group interdependence (mindless follower) Informality directness, give and take discussion (rude and abrupt) Formality indirectness, protect "face" (stiff and impersonal) Competition individual achievement (egotistical, show-off) Cooperation group achievement (avoiding doing work or taking responsibility) AUTHORITY Egalitarianism fairness, belief in equal opportunity (being picky, on a soapbox) Hierarchy privilege of status or rank (power hungry or avoiding accountability) TEMPORAL Use of Time "Time is money" (doesn’t get the important things in life) Passage of Time "Time is for life" (lazy and irresponsible) Change/Future Adaptability ensures survival (muckraker, stirs up trouble) Tradition/Past Stability ensures survival (old-school, afraid of change) ACTIVITY Action orientation "Make things happen" (rushes without thinking) "Being" orientation "Let things happen" (indecisive and slow) Practicality Efficiency is always best (impersonal and unscrupulous) Idealism Always maintain principles (naïve and impractical) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  14. 14. Exercise: Non-Verbal Violations 1: Please pick a partner and stand. 2: You and your partner will receive different instructions for nonverbal behaviors. Do not share the information. 3: Begin to converse about your interests and hobbies. 4: INCREMENTALLY dramatize the nonverbal behavior. 5: Make note of thoughts or feelings you experience. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  15. 15. Non-Verbal Violations: Partner 1 You signal respect by standing physically close to your partner. Stand Approximately 6 inches away from him/her. You enjoy asking a lot of questions to signal conversational excitement and involvement. You also like to touch your partner's arm from time-to-time to signal approval for a good idea. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  16. 16. Non-Verbal Violations: Partner 2 You signal respect by standing at least an arm's length away from your partner. You constantly check your watch or the clock for fear of running out of time in the conversation. You also like to make loud sounds (ahs, oohs, uh-huhs, sighs, etc.) to signal your approval and great contentment of the conversation. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  17. 17. Debrief: Nonverbal Violations Did the INTENT of your described behaviors allow you to display them more enthusiastically? What was the IMPACT of the behaviors of your partner? Did knowing that “odd” behaviors may be part of the exercise help you accept your partner’s behavior? In working with people from various communities, what do you take away from this exercise? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  18. 18. Break Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  19. 19. Identifiers, Power, and Communication Internalized Oppression/Dominance Stereotype Threat Accumulated Impact/ Microaggressions Code/Mode Switching Fish Seeing the Water “Normal” versus “Good” “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  20. 20. Discussion: Conflict Re-understood Think about a conflict or misunderstanding which you now see as a result of identity and power differences. Using some of the terminology introduced, discuss with a partner or group of three what was going on to cause the conflict or misunderstanding. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  21. 21. So What? Now What? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  22. 22. Assumptions and Interpretations • Mental Models • Ladder of Inference Belief Conclusions Selective Data Observable Data • Tools of Action Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  23. 23. Examining the Self William Taylor’s Reflective Competence Model Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  24. 24. 1. What did you see/hear (raw data)? 2. What are your personal filters (cultural values, norms, and identifiers)? 3. What was your interpretation of what you saw/heard (inference)? 4. How did you feel as a result? 5. What do you want? Checking Assumptions and Interpretations: Steps to Analyze Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  25. 25. Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Schematic Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  26. 26. 1. How do you see materials from this workshop applying to you and your relationships? 2. What questions do you still have? 3. What are your personal action steps? Discussion: How Will I Apply All This? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  27. 27. “To be culturally effective doesn’t mean you are an authority in the values and beliefs of every culture. What it means is that you hold a deep respect for cultural differences and are eager to learn, and willing to accept, that there are many ways of viewing the world” Okokon O. Udo Cultural Effectiveness Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  28. 28. Presenter Information Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee 6th Faculty and Professional Outreach Seattle Girls’ School 2706 S Jackson Street Seattle WA 98144 (206) 805-6562 rlee@seattlegirlsschool.org http://tiny.cc/rosettalee Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  29. 29. Identity Resources • Carlos H. Arce, “A Reconsideration of Chicano Culture and Identity” • Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, “Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (R/CID)” • Mindy Bingham and Sandy Stryker, “Socioemotional Development for Girls” • Vivienne Cass, “Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical model” • William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity” • Anthony D’Augelli, “ Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  30. 30. Identity Resources • Erik Erikson, “Eight Stages of Man” • J. E. Helms, Various Publications on Racial and Ethnic Identity Development • Jean Kim, “Processes of Asian American Identity Development” • James Maricia, “Four Ego and Identity Statuses” • Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, “The Three C’s of Hardiness” • Jean S. Phinney, “Ethnic Identity in Adolescents and Adults: Review of the Research” • Ponterotto & Pederso, Preventing Prejudice • Maria P. P. Root, Various Works on Multiracial Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  31. 31. Identity Resources • Patricia Romney, Karlene Ferron, and Jennifer Hill, “Measuring the Success of Diversity Directors in Independent Schools” • Pedro Ruiz, “Latino/a Identity Development Model” • Chalmer E. Thompson and Robert T. Carter, Racial Identity Theory • Alex Wilson, “How We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two Spirit People” • Christine J. Yeh, “The Collectivistic Nature of Identity Development Among Asian-American College Students” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  32. 32. Communication Resources • “Stereotype Threat” by Joshua Aronson • Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity • William Gudykunst, Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Comunication • Milton Bennett, PhD, Intercultural Communication Institute www.intercultural.org • “Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures” by Erica Hagen, Intercultural Communication Resources • Thiagi.com • Thrive! Team Dynamics • http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/action_science_ history.htm Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  33. 33. Miscellaneous Resources • Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman, “Privilege and Power,” Summer Diversity Institute, National Association of Independent Schools, 2009 • Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, Nurture Shock • Kevin Jennings, GLSEN (Gay Lesbian and Straight Education Network) www.glsen.org • Allan G. Johnson, Privilege, Power, and Difference • Johnnie McKinley, “Leveling the Playing Field and Raising African American Students’ Achievement in Twenty-nine Urban Classrooms,” New Horizons for Learning, http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/differentiated/ mckinley.htm Michael J Nakkula and Eric Toshalis, Understanding Youth. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)

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