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University of Chicago Laboratory Schools CCC for Teachers


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Humans communicate on many levels: spoken language, tone, body language, style and personality. The fact that we have complex cultural identities and a host of differing past experiences increases the probability of cross-cultural miscommunications. This workshop presents major cross-cultural communication theories, ways that cultural values, power, privilege and differences affect the way we communicate, tools for questioning assumptions, and ways to improve cross-cultural communications skills.

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University of Chicago Laboratory Schools CCC for Teachers

  1. 1. University of Chicago Laboratory SchoolsRosetta Eun Ryong LeeSeattle Girls’ SchoolWhat I Said and What I Meant:Cross Cultural CommunicationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  2. 2. About Seattle Girls’ SchoolRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  3. 3. Agenda Cross Cultural Communication Cultural Values, Norms of Behavior,and Communication Cultural Identifiers, Power, andCommunication Discussion: Conflict Re-understood So What? Now What?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  4. 4. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  5. 5. RaceReligionClassGenderSexualOrientationAbilityAgeEthnicityGeographic LocationLanguageEducationalAttainmentAppearanceSeniorityPositionor TitleStatusRelationshipTo Power PlayersInternalExternalInstitutionalDimensions of Identity and CultureRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  6. 6.  What is it? How is it Different from InterculturalCommunication? CCC Theories– Face-Negotiation Theory– Conversational Constraints Theory– Expectancy Violation Theory– Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory– Communication Accommodation TheoryCross Cultural CommunicationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  7. 7. Individual - CollectivisticLow Context - High ContextTask - RelationshipLow Uncertainty - High UncertaintyVertical - HorizontalDimensions of VariabilityRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  8. 8.  Personality Orientation Individual Values Self Construal- Independent- Interdependent Individual Socialization Cultural Norms and RulesFactors that InfluenceRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  9. 9. Discussion: My StyleIn hearing aboutcommunicationdifferences, what wouldyou describe as yourcultural communicationstyle? Have you noticedstark differencescompared to others?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  10. 10. Cultural ValuesNorms, and Rules Values Value Priorities Norms of Behavior Non-VerbalCommunicationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  11. 11. CulturalValueDifferencesRELATIONALIndividualismself-reliance, independence(selfish)Collectivismgroup interdependence(mindless follower)Informalitydirectness, give and take discussion(rude and abrupt)Formalityindirectness, protect "face"(stiff and impersonal)Competitionindividual achievement(egotistical, show-off)Cooperationgroup achievement(avoiding doing work or taking responsibility)AUTHORITYEgalitarianismfairness, belief in equal opportunity(being picky, on a soapbox)Hierarchyprivilege of status or rank(power hungry or avoiding accountability)TEMPORALUse of Time"Time is money"(doesn’t get the important things in life)Passage of Time"Time is for life"(lazy and irresponsible)Change/FutureAdaptability ensures survival(muckraker, stirs up trouble)Tradition/PastStability ensures survival(old-school, afraid of change)ACTIVITYAction orientation"Make things happen"(rushes without thinking)"Being" orientation"Let things happen"(indecisive and slow)PracticalityEfficiency is always best(impersonal and unscrupulous)IdealismAlways maintain principles(naïve and impractical)Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  12. 12. Identifiers, Power,and CommunicationInternalized Oppression/DominanceStereotype ThreatAccumulated Impact/MicroaggressionsCode/Mode SwitchingFish Seeing the Water“Normal” versus “Good”“Intent” versus “Impact”Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  13. 13. Discussion: Conflict Re-understoodThink about a recent conflict which younow know to be true to be at heart a nidentity and power difference. Usingsome of the terminology introduced,discuss with a partner or group of threewhat was going on to cause the conflict.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  14. 14. So What? Now What?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  15. 15. Assumptions and Interpretations• Mental Models• Ladder of InferenceBeliefConclusionsSelective DataObservable Data• Tools of ActionRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  16. 16. 1. What did you see/hear (raw data)?2. What are your personal filters (culturalvalues, norms, and identifiers)?3. What was your interpretation of what yousaw/heard (inference)?4. How did you feel as a result?5. What do you want?Checking Assumptions andInterpretations: Steps to AnalyzeRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  17. 17. Developmental Model of InterculturalSensitivity (DMIS) SchematicRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  18. 18. 1. How do you see materialsfrom this workshop applyingto your life?2. What questions do you stillhave?3. What are your personal actionsteps?Discussion:How Will I Apply All This?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  19. 19. “To be culturally effective doesn’tmean you are an authority in thevalues and beliefs of every culture.What it means is that you hold adeep respect for cultural differencesand are eager to learn, and willing toaccept, that there are many ways ofviewing the world”Okokon O. UdoCultural EffectivenessRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  20. 20. Final Questions or Comments?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  21. 21. Presenter InformationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee6th Faculty andProfessional OutreachSeattle Girls’ School2706 S Jackson StreetSeattle WA 98144(206) 805-6562rlee@seattlegirlsschool.org Eun Ryong Lee (
  22. 22. Identity Resources• Carlos H. Arce, “A Reconsideration of Chicano Cultureand Identity”• Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, “Racial/Cultural IdentityDevelopment Model (R/CID)”• Mindy Bingham and Sandy Stryker, “SocioemotionalDevelopment for Girls”• Vivienne Cass, “Homosexual identity formation: Testing atheoretical model”• William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in AfricanAmerican Identity”• Anthony D’Augelli, “ Identity development and sexualorientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, andbisexual development”Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  23. 23. Identity Resources• Erik Erikson, “Eight Stages of Man”• J. E. Helms, Various Publications on Racial and EthnicIdentity Development• Jean Kim, “Processes of Asian American IdentityDevelopment”• James Maricia, “Four Ego and Identity Statuses”• Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, “The Three C’s of Hardiness”• Jean S. Phinney, “Ethnic Identity in Adolescents andAdults: Review of the Research”• Ponterotto & Pederso, Preventing Prejudice• Maria P. P. Root, Various Works on Multiracial IdentityRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  24. 24. Identity Resources• Patricia Romney, Karlene Ferron, and Jennifer Hill,“Measuring the Success of Diversity Directors inIndependent Schools”• Pedro Ruiz, “Latino/a Identity Development Model”• Chalmer E. Thompson and Robert T. Carter, RacialIdentity Theory• Alex Wilson, “How We Find Ourselves: IdentityDevelopment and Two Spirit People”• Christine J. Yeh, “The Collectivistic Nature of IdentityDevelopment Among Asian-American CollegeStudents”Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  25. 25. Communication Resources• “Stereotype Threat” by Joshua Aronson• Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: CommunicatingSocial Identity• William Gudykunst, Cross-Cultural and InterculturalComunication• Milton Bennett, PhD, Intercultural CommunicationInstitute• “Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures” by EricaHagen, Intercultural Communication Resources•• Thrive! Team Dynamics• Eun Ryong Lee (
  26. 26. Miscellaneous Resources• Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman, “Privilege andPower,” Summer Diversity Institute, National Associationof Independent Schools, 2009• Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, Nurture Shock• Kevin Jennings, GLSEN (Gay Lesbian and Straight EducationNetwork)• Allan G. Johnson, Privilege, Power, and Difference• Johnnie McKinley, “Leveling the Playing Field and RaisingAfrican American Students’ Achievement in Twenty-nineUrban Classrooms,” New Horizons for Learning,• Michael J Nakkula and Eric Toshalis, Understanding Youth.• National Center for Cultural CompetenceRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (