Klingenstein Center Cultural Competency


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3 Hour Session Delivered to Summer Cohort at Klingenstein Center. As leaders of our institutions, we need to have strategic vision and global understanding to manage meaningful change. What demographic and philosophical changes make diversity and inclusion an imperative value added rather than a desired additive? What factors help us understand where the school is on the spectrum of exclusive clubs to inclusive organizations? How do we move our communities strategically at the pace that is right for the school? What are some best practices for getting the right people to the school and leveraging their talents? How do we sustain our positive growth over time? Discuss these questions and gather tools to help our schools become the leading edge of cultural competency, inclusion, and equity.

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Klingenstein Center Cultural Competency

  1. 1. Klingenstein Center Masters Program Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Seattle Girls’ School Cultural Competency in Independent Schools: What Leaders Need to Know Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  2. 2. About Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  3. 3. Goals  Frameworks for Cultural Competency  Knowledge, Skills, and Action  An Institutional Approach  Next Steps  Resources Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  4. 4. Culture [consists] primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies… It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another. James A. Banks What is Culture? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  5. 5. Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another. Geert H. Hofstede What is Culture? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  6. 6. What is Culture? Graphic from the Anti-Defamation League Artifacts and Behaviors Values Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  7. 7. Dimensions of Identity and Culture This model of identifiers and culture was created by Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman for NAIS Summer Diversity Institute, adapted from Loden and Rosener’s Workforce America! (1991) and from Diverse Teams at Work, Gardenswartz & Rowe (SHRM 2003). Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  8. 8. Cultural Competency: Many Models Cultural competence is a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, institution or individual and enable that system, institution or individual to work effectively in cross- cultural situations. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee) Terry Cross
  9. 9. Cultural Competency: Many Models Cultural competence comprises four components: (a) Awareness of one's own cultural worldview, (b) Attitude towards cultural differences, (c) Knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews, and (d) Cross-cultural skills. Developing cultural competence results in an ability to understand, communicate with, and effectively interact with people across cultures. Mercedes Martin & Billy Vaughn Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  10. 10. Cultural Competency: Many Models Steven Jones Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  11. 11. Cultural Competency: Key Elements Value Orientation Diversity as Value Added Respect Relationships Equity Thought Orientation Knowledge Awareness Systems Thinking Action Orientation Consciousness Building Capacity Building Assessment Adaptation Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  12. 12. Knowledge, Skills, and Action: Cross Cultural Communication Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  13. 13.  What is it?  How is it Different from Intercultural Communication?  CCC Theories – Face-Negotiation Theory – Conversational Constraints Theory – Expectancy Violation Theory – Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory – Communication Accommodation Theory Cross Cultural Communication Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  14. 14. Individual - Collectivistic Low Context - High Context Task - Relationship Low Uncertainty - High Uncertainty Vertical - Horizontal Dimensions of Variability Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  15. 15.  Personality Orientation  Individual Values - Allocentric - Idiocentric  Self Construal - Independent - Interdependent  Individual Socialization  Cultural Norms and Rules Factors that Influence Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  16. 16. Cultural Values Norms, and Rules  Values  Value Priorities  Norms of Behavior  Non-Verbal Communication Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  17. 17. CulturalValueDifferences RELATIONAL Individualism self-reliance, independence (selfish) Collectivism group interdependence (mindless follower) Informality directness, give and take discussion (rude and abrupt) Formality indirectness, protect "face" (stiff and impersonal) Competition individual achievement (egotistical, show-off) Cooperation group achievement (avoiding doing work or taking responsibility) AUTHORITY Egalitarianism fairness, belief in equal opportunity (being picky, on a soapbox) Hierarchy privilege of status or rank (power hungry or avoiding accountability) TEMPORAL Use of Time "Time is money" (doesn’t get the important things in life) Passage of Time "Time is for life" (lazy and irresponsible) Change/Future Adaptability ensures survival (muckraker, stirs up trouble) Tradition/Past Stability ensures survival (old-school, afraid of change) ACTIVITY Action orientation "Make things happen" (rushes without thinking) "Being" orientation "Let things happen" (indecisive and slow) Practicality Efficiency is always best (impersonal and unscrupulous) Idealism Always maintain principles (naïve and impractical) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  18. 18. Discussion: My Style In hearing about communication differences, what would you describe as your cultural communication style? What values drive your behaviors? Have you noticed stark differences compared to others? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  19. 19. Identifiers, Power, and Communication Internalized Oppression/Dominance Stereotype Threat Microaggressions/Accumulated Impact Code/Mode Switching Fish Seeing the Water “Norm” “Normal” “Good” “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  20. 20. Discussion: Conflict Re-understood Think about a recent conflict which you now know to be true to be at heart a n identity and power difference. Using some of the terminology introduced, discuss with a partner or group of three what was going on to cause the conflict. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  21. 21. So What? Now What? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  22. 22. Assumptions and Interpretations • Mental Models • Ladder of Inference Belief Conclusions Selective Data Observable Data • Tools of Action Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  23. 23. 1. What did you see/hear (raw data)? 2. What are your personal filters (cultural values, norms, and identifiers)? 3. What was your interpretation of what you saw/heard (inference)? 4. How did you feel as a result? 5. What do you want? Checking Assumptions and Interpretations: Steps to Analyze Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  24. 24. How will you incorporate this knowledge and understanding toward inclusive action? Discussion: How Will I Apply All This? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  25. 25. An Institutional Approach Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  26. 26. From Exclusive to Inclusive: Developmental Stages Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  27. 27. Organizational Development Model of Inclusion Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  28. 28. Milton Bennett’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  29. 29. Hallmarks of Earlier Phases  People feel pressure to fit in  People fear speaking up  “Who you know” is more important than “what you know” (relationship-based culture)  You only trust those closest to you (cliques)  Denial of differences is considered a virtue (“we don’t see differences here”)  It’s hard for outsiders to learn the rules (sink or swim to prove yourself) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  30. 30. Hallmarks of Later Phases  People can bring their full selves to school  The school encourages and welcomes people to contribute different opinions and points of view  There is a performance driven culture  People form dynamic and diverse groups (trust)  Differences are seen as additive and productive  Success is explicitly defined, and the school supports people in achieving it  The school has an interactive culture  People have the competencies to adapt to different cultural contexts. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  31. 31. Schools Have ZPDs, Too! Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee) Status Quo: Reliance on what the school does already and naturally Zone of Proximal Development: Mindful and strategic change toward the next stage of growth Too Much, Too Fast: Unrealistic demands on the community
  32. 32. Identifying Growth Zones – The 5Ps • Policy – Enumeration of the school’s diversity commitment through mission, strategic plan, handbooks, websites, etc. • Programming – Diversity training and programming for all constituencies (board, admin, faculty, staff, students, families, etc.). Diversity and inclusivity curriculum. • Practice – Consistent and meaningful revisit of policy and programs. Climate assessments, proactive changes, and meaningful responses to incidents. • People – Critical mass of people who are supportive AND active on all levels. • Pecuniary – Funding, people, and time allocated in the strategic plan and daily life for supporting diversity efforts. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  33. 33. Making Choices, Setting Priorities Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  34. 34. Final Questions or Comments? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  35. 35. Presenter Information Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee 6th Faculty and Professional Outreach Seattle Girls’ School 2706 S Jackson Street Seattle WA 98144 (206) 805-6562 rlee@seattlegirlsschool.org http://tiny.cc/rosettalee Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  36. 36. Identity Resources • Carlos H. Arce, “A Reconsideration of Chicano Culture and Identity” • Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, “Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (R/CID)” • Mindy Bingham and Sandy Stryker, “Socioemotional Development for Girls” • Vivienne Cass, “Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical model” • William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity” • Anthony D’Augelli, “ Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  37. 37. Identity Resources • Erik Erikson, “Eight Stages of Man” • J. E. Helms, Various Publications on Racial and Ethnic Identity Development • Jean Kim, “Processes of Asian American Identity Development” • James Maricia, “Four Ego and Identity Statuses” • Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, “The Three C’s of Hardiness” • Jean S. Phinney, “Ethnic Identity in Adolescents and Adults: Review of the Research” • Ponterotto & Pederso, Preventing Prejudice • Maria P. P. Root, Various Works on Multiracial Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  38. 38. Identity Resources • Patricia Romney, Karlene Ferron, and Jennifer Hill, “Measuring the Success of Diversity Directors in Independent Schools” • Pedro Ruiz, “Latino/a Identity Development Model” • Chalmer E. Thompson and Robert T. Carter, Racial Identity Theory • Alex Wilson, “How We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two Spirit People” • Christine J. Yeh, “The Collectivistic Nature of Identity Development Among Asian-American College Students” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  39. 39. Communication Resources • “Stereotype Threat” by Joshua Aronson • Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity • William Gudykunst, Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Comunication • Milton Bennett, PhD, Intercultural Communication Institute www.intercultural.org • “Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures” by Erica Hagen, Intercultural Communication Resources • Thiagi.com • Thrive! Team Dynamics • http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/action_science_ history.htm Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  40. 40. Miscellaneous Resources • Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman, “Privilege and Power,” Summer Diversity Institute, National Association of Independent Schools, 2009 • Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, Nurture Shock • Kevin Jennings, GLSEN (Gay Lesbian and Straight Education Network) www.glsen.org • Allan G. Johnson, Privilege, Power, and Difference • Johnnie McKinley, “Leveling the Playing Field and Raising African American Students’ Achievement in Twenty-nine Urban Classrooms,” New Horizons for Learning, http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/differentiated/ mckinley.htm Michael J Nakkula and Eric Toshalis, Understanding Youth. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  41. 41. Cultural Competence and Educational Excellence  "How Diversity Affects Teaching and Learning Climate of Inclusion has a Positive Effect on Learning Outcomes," by Sylvia Hurtado. 2, 3, 5 http://www.diversityweb.org/research_and_trends/research_evaluation_impact/ benefits_of_diversity/ sylvia_hurtado.cfm  • University of Michigan . Gratz v. Bollinger, et al., No. 97-75321 (E.D. Michigan), Grutter v. Bollinger et al., No. 97-75928 (E.D. Michigan). 1 "The Educational Value of Diversity." Center for Institutional Diversity.  •"Who Benefits from Racial Diversity in Higher Education?" by Mitchell J. Chang, Associate Dean of the College of Liberal Arts, Loyola Marymount University, and Alexander W. Astin, Director, Higher Education Research Institute, University of California- Los Angeles. 2, 3 http://www.diversityweb.org/Digest/W97/research.html  •"Fostering Intercultural Harmony in Schools Research Findings." Report, prepared by Kathleen Cotton, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, Oregon, 1993. "Cooperative Learning, Multicultural Functioning and Student Achievement. San Bernadino, CA: San Bernadino School District, 1990. 2, 4 http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/ 8/topsyn7.hRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  42. 42. Miscellaneous Resources • Cornell University ILR Management Programs (www.ilr.cornell.edu) • National Training Lab (www.ntl.org) • Robert Evans, The Human Side of School Change • Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point • Jim Collins, Good To Great • Stephen R. Covey’s Coveylink • Stephen M. R. Covey, The Speed of Trust • Michelle Cummings, Training-Wheels.com • Terrence Deal and Kent Peterson, Shaping School Culture: The Heart of Leadership Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  43. 43. Concentrating on the People: Recruitment TO Retention Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  44. 44. Stages of Recruitment to Retention  Recruiting  Interviewing  Admitting/Hiring  Starting before the first school year begins  Conducting professional development  Mentoring and collaborating  Assessing, supervising, observing and evaluating  Granting tenure/permanence/leadership  Sustaining the connection  Developing career-long learners  Renewing and reorienting Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  45. 45. Leveraging Your People  Back up your enthusiasts 15-20%  Sanction outright resisters 15-20%  Work on your 60-70%  Be authentic about where you are  Support your pioneers  Cultivate your voice of conscience  Contribute your stubborn ounces  Constantly reference your mission Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  46. 46. Keeping Up To Date: Assessment and Training Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  47. 47. Assess and Reassess  Demographic Trends – Entrance Numbers – Attrition Numbers – Disciplinary Cases – Academic Cases – Financial Aid Breakdowns  Climate Surveys  Exit Interviews  Programmatic Surveys  Pre-Post Assessments  Every 1-2 Years Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  48. 48. Cultural Competency Skillsets  Identity Development  Cross Cultural Communication  Intercultural Conflict  Bias, Power, and Systems  Privilege and Allyship  School Culture and Change  Inclusive Curriculum  Leading and Following  Cultural Adaptation Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  49. 49. Doing It on a Budget  Free Climate Surveys  Survey Monkey  Word Clouds  Task Forces  Online Courses with Cohorts  Post Conference Share- Outs and Trainings  Book Discussion Groups  Expertise Exchange  Forming Consortia With Other Schools Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  50. 50. Resources Available at tiny.cc/rosettalee Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)  Common Vocabulary  Assessment Tools From Various Organizations  Links to Resource Websites  Professional Development Options  Must Read Books  Can’t Find What You’re Looking For? Contact Me!
  51. 51. Break