Name: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ofthe People’s Republic of ChinaPopulation: 7,071,600 (2011)Area: 426.3 sq. milesCurrency: Hong Kong DollarClimate: Humid SubtropicalVegetation: Broadleaf evergreen forestProfile
Colonial Hong Kong era (1800s-1997)Japanese occupation era (1940s)Modern Hong KongHandover (1997)Time Line
Colonial Hong Kong era (1800s-1997)There are wars between China and England. Chinasign a treaty that they have to cession Hong Kong tothe British. After China lost Hong Kong Island, they tryto get them back from winning the British so startanother wars. At the end, China lost the entire HongKong.
Date Treaty Result20 January 1841 Convention ofChuenpeePreliminary cession ofHong Kong Island tothe United Kingdom29 August 1842 Treaty of Nanjing Cession of Hong KongIsland, founded as acrown colony of theUnited Kingdom18 October 1860 Convention of Beijing Cession of Kowloon(south od theBoundary Street)1 July 1898 Second Convention ofBeijingLease of the NewTerritories for 99years.
Hong Kong was occupied by Japan from 23 December1941 to 15 August 1945. This period also called “3 yearsand 8 months”. Japan attack Hong Kong 8 hours afterthey attack the Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. After Japantook control of Hong Kong, everyone in Hong Kongforce to learn Japanese and get kill by no reason.Japanese Occupation Era (1940s)
The manufacturing industry opened a new decadeemploying large sections of the population. Familyvalues and Chinese tradition were challenged likenever before as people spent more time in factoriesthan at home.Modern Hong Kong Under BritishRule (1950s-1997)
Hong Kong is handed over on 1 July 1997.Handover (1997)
1. The long-held British practice of no general elections by HK citizens remainsunchanged.2. English is still taught in all schools. However, many schools teach in Mandarin inparallel with Cantonese and English.3. The border with the mainland continues to be patrolled as before.4. Hong Kong remains an individual member of various international organizations, suchas the IOC, APEC and WTO.5. Hong Kong continues to negotiate and maintain its own aviation bilateral treatieswith foreign countries and territories. Flights between Hong Kong and Chinamainland are treated as international flights (or more commonly known as inter-territorial flights in China mainland).6. Hong Kong SAR passport holders have easier access to countries in Europe and NorthAmerica, while mainland citizens do not. Citizens in mainland China can apply for avisa to Hong Kong only from the PRC Government. Many former colonial citizens canstill use British National (Overseas) and British citizen passports after 1997. (Mainarticle: British nationality law and Hong Kong)7. It continues to have more political freedoms than the mainland China,including freedom of the press.Unchanged After Handover
8. Motor vehicles in Hong Kong, unlike those in mainland China, continue to drive on theleft.9. Electrical plugs (, TV transmissions (PAL-I) and many other technical standards fromthe United Kingdom are still utilised in Hong Kong. However, telephone companiesceased installing British Standard BS 6312 telephone sockets in Hong Kong. HK alsoadopts the digital TV standard devised in mainland China. (Main article: Technicalstandards in colonial Hong Kong)10. Hong Kong retains a separate international dialling code (+852) and telephonenumbering plan from that of the mainland. Calls between Hong Kong and themainland still require international dialling.11. The former British military drill, marching and words of command in English continuesin all disciplinary services including all civil organizations. The PLA soldiers of theChinese Garrison in Hong Kong have their own drills and Mandarin words ofcommand.12. Hong Kong still uses the British date format.13. All statues of British monarchs like Queen Victoria and King George remain.14. Road names like “Queen‘s Road”, “King’s Road” remain.
1. The Chief Executive of Hong Kong is now elected by a selection committee with 1200 members,who mainly are elected from among professional sectors and pro-Chinese business in Hong Kong.2. All public offices now fly the flags of the PRC and the Hong Kong SAR. The Union Flag now fliesonly outside the British Consulate-General and other British premises.3. Elizabeth IIs portrait disappeared from banknotes, postage stamps and public offices. As of 2009,some pre-1997 coins and banknotes are still legal tenders and are in circulation.4. The Royal title was dropped from almost all organizations that had been granted it, with theexception of the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club.5. Legal references to the Crown were replaced by references to the State, and barristers who hadbeen appointed Queens Counsel were now to be known as Senior Counsel.6. A local honours system was introduced to replace the British honours system, with the GrandBauhinia Medal replacing the Order of the British Empire.7. Public holidays changed, with the Queens Official Birthday and other British-inspired occasionsbeing replaced by PRC National Day and Hong Kong SAR Establishment Day.8. Many of the red British style pillar boxes were removed from the streets of Hong Kong andreplaced by green Hongkong Postboxes in the Singapore style. A few examples remain, but havebeen repainted.9. British citizens (without the right of abode) are no longer able to work in Hong Kong for one yearwithout a visa; the policy was changed on 1 April 1997.10. Secondary schools must teach in Cantonese, unless approved by the Department of Education.Secondary education will move away from the English model of five years secondary schoolingplus two years of university matriculation to the Chinese model of three years of junior secondaryplus another three years of senior secondary. University education extends from three years tofour.Changed After Handover
Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of thePeoples Republic of China. Following British rule from 1842to 1997, China assumed sovereignty under the onecountry, two systems principle. The Hong Kong SpecialAdministrative Regions constitutional document, the BasicLaw, ensures that the current political situation will remainin effect for 50 years. The rights and freedoms of people inHong Kong are based on the impartial rule of law and anindependent judiciary.Head of Government: Chief ExecutiveCabinet: Executive CouncilLegislature: Legislative Council, 70 seatsHighest Court: Court of Final AppealHong Kong Government
The law of Hong Kong is based on the rule of law andthe independence of the judiciary.The constitutional framework for the legal system isprovided by the “Hong Kong Basic Law”.Hong Kong is under the principal of “One country,Two system”Hong Kong’s Law
Before handover, the judges is delegated by Britain.After handover, the judges is delegated by the ChiefExecutive.The legislative council building is old highest court.Court
Currency – Hong Kong dollar(HKD)Economic Activities – Trade and manufacturing,commercial fishingGDP per capita – HK$266,026(US$34,294) (2011)Unemployment – 3.4% (1/2011-3/2011)Main export partners – mainland China (45.4%),United States (10.9%), Japan (4.2%)Main import partners – mainland China (45.4%), Japan(9.1%), Singapore (7.0%), Taiwan (6.7%)Economy of Hong Kong Profile
As one of the world’s leading international financialcenters, Hong Kong’s service-oriented economy ischaracterised by low taxation, near – free port tradeand well-established international financial market.Hong Kong has remained as the world’s freesteconomy. By the late 20th century, Hong Kong wasthe 7th largest port in the world and second only toNew York and Rotterdam in terms of containerthroughput.Economy of Hong Kong
The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the 6th largest in theworld, which a market capitalization of about US$2.97trillion. In 2006, the value of initial public offeringsconducted in Hong Kong was second highest in the worldafter London. In 2009, Hong Kong raised 22% of worldwideinitial public offering capital, becoming the largest centerof initial public offering in the world. The rival stockexchange of the future is expected to be the ShanghaiStock Exchange. As of 2006, Hong Kong Exchange andClearing (HKEX) has an average daily turnover of 33.4billion dollars, which is 12 times that of Shanghai.Stock Exchange
Hong Kong has marked as the world’s freest economyin The Wall Street Journal and Heritage Foundation’sIndex of Economic Freedom for 17 consecutive years,since the inception of the index in 1995. The indexmeasures restrictions on business, trade, investment,finance, property rights and labor and considers theimpact of corruption, government size and monetarycontrols in 183 economies. Hong Kong is the only oneto have ever scored 90 points or above on the 100point scaleEconomic Freedom
Hong Kong culture is a hybrid culture of east andwest.Many people in Hong Kong are proud of their cultureand generally refer themselves as “Hong Konger” or“Hong Kong Chinese”, to distinct themselves fromthe Chinese in mainland ChinaCulture
Cantonese is the most widely spoken language inHong Kong. Since the 1997 1997 handover, thegovernment has adopted the “biliterate and triligual”policy. Under the principal, Chinese and English mustboth be acknowledged as the official languages, withCantonese being acknowledged as the officialChinese language in Hong Kong, while also acceptingthe use of Mandarin.Language
A large variety of religious groups are present in HongKong, including Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism,Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism.Number “4” is a bad number to Hong Kong peoplebecause the pronunciation of “4” in Chinese is similarto word “die” in Chinese so they try to avoid it whenpossible. Such as many buildings in Hong Kong don’thave the floor end with 4 like 4, 14, 24. Also thenumber “8” is a lucky number for the Hong Kongpeople because the pronunciation of “8” is similar toa word which mean “richest and fortune” in Chinese.Religion and Beliefs
Hong Kong is well known for it’s shopping districtwith multiple department stores, nicknamed“shopping paradise” many imported goodtransported to Hong Kong have lower tax duties thanthe international stranded, making most itemsaffordable for the general public. Hong Kong isidentified by its materialistic culture and high levels ofconsumerism. Shops from the lowest end to the mostupscale pack the streets in closer proximity.Hong Kong has about 100 shopping malls.Shopping
Canton Road is where all the wellknow name branded locate.
Food holds an important place in Hong Kong culture.From dim sum, hot pot, fast food, to the most rare ofdelicacies, Hong Kong carries the reputable label of“Gourmet Paradise” and “World’s Fair of Food”Hong Kong cuisine, which is influenced by westernand eastern countries, is very diverse. Hong Kong alsohas its own style too.You can find as many different country’s food as youcan think of.Food
Dim SumHong Kong people usually go to dim sum restaurant on their family day withtheir family.
Hot PotHot pot doesn’t mean it is spicy, it is just a pot of soup that is keep boiling andyou can put different kind of food in it to cook it. Such as beef, meat ball,vegetables, and seafood. They usually eat hot pot when it is winter to keep yourbody warm but since it being so common right now, some restaurant have it fordinner at all four season too.
Hong Kong Jockey Club provides a major avenue forhorse racing and gambling to locals.They will donate a lot of money every year to buildschool, hospital, community center, etc.Hong Kong Jockey Club
The Architecture of Hong Kong features great emphasison Contemporary architecture,especially Modernism, Postmodernism, Functionalism, etc.Due to the lack of available land, few historical buildingsremain in the urban areas of Hong Kong. However, HongKong has become a center for modern architecture asolder buildings are cleared away to make space for newer,larger buildings. It has more buildings above 100m andmore skyscrapers above 150m than any other city. HongKong‘s skyline is often considered to be the best in theworld, with the surrounding mountains and VictoriaHarbour complementing the skyscrapers.Hong Kong Architecture