Anatomy Of An Internet Marketing System


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Raise your hand if you love to spend money on marketing. Not so much? Well read on and find
out how you can promote your business, generate leads and sell with (almost) no budget.
Unfortunately, like everything, no-budget marketing requires some preparation, and you do really
need to start with a basic marketing toolkit. If you are running an established business that means
tools you probably already have in place. Namely:
A powerful website that leads your prospects through a complete sales process
Software enabling you to make simple updates to your website (you can of course pay someone
else to do this, but then it's not 'no-budget marketing').
Business cards (and by the way: is your business card just a passive vehicle for your contact
details? Because something as simple as a tagline or a list of services could turn that valuable
piece of real estate into an active selling piece).
Business stationery as necessary.
Other sales pieces such as brochures or mailing packages, if you have already found that those
printed materials are vital for you particular business.

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Anatomy Of An Internet Marketing System

  1. 1. ==== ====Get Marketing Graphics Toolkit v4 ====IntroductionIn 21st Century and in the era of Knowledge Based Industry when global market in shrinking crossculture adaptation is not only a MUST but is only a mantra to succeed. In my previous twoemployments, we had 15 and 24 nationals respectively from different countries and many of ourpeople from India go on Deputation to other countries and many of them face challenges to cope-up with the cultural change...behavioral change.Understanding Intercultural SensitivityWhy you need to go out, India is a country with "Diversity in Culture". This diversity is the result ofthe coexistence of a number of religions as well as local traditions.The beautiful temples of south India, easily identifiable by their ornately sculptured surface, in thedesert of Kutch, Gujarat, on the other hand, the local folk pit themselves against the awesomeforces of nature, in the extreme north is the high altitude desert of Ladakh, Local culture is visiblyshaped by the faith - Buddhism - as well as by the harsh terrain.With over one billion citizens, India is the second most populous nation in the world. It isimpossible to speak of any one Indian culture, although there are deep cultural continuities that tieits people together.In its quest for modernization, India has preserved its ancient civilization and never lost sight of theideals that gave her strength through countless centuries. Science and technology has beensteadily raising the living standard and prosperity of its people, but the nation of more than onebillion people - one sixth of humanity - continues to live with some of its traditional values that goback 4,000 years and more. See this synthesis of tradition and modernity on your India Travelitinerary.Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity"Global diversity is the recognition and development of skills to deal with differences on bothinternational and domestic fronts." -Dr. Milton BennettHow can we help employees in our organizations succeed in an increasingly complex workplace?Our function is to clarify what cultural competence is and why it is needed, and to help employeesenhance understanding of their own culture, and increase their intercultural sensitivity andcompetence.In 1986, Bennett created the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, which shows a
  2. 2. progression of stages people may go through in developing intercultural competency. Since then,he has partnered with Dr. Mitch Hammer of American University to develop the InterculturalDevelopment Inventory (IDI). (The inventory is a set of statements that allows an individual toassess his/her developmental stage of intercultural sensitivity according to the DMIS. This tool isvaluable because it measures peoples ability to experience difference in relatively complex ways).Why there is Resistance...Tool to understand resistanceDevelopment of intercultural competence does not come without a struggle; some employees willprotest these efforts. Bennetts model helps us understand that the basic form of resistance is adefense response. People who respond to diversity efforts in this way are often moving from themodels first stage of intercultural sensitivity, denial (a failure to recognize that cultural differencesexist) into the second stage, defense (recognition of differences). Often, people at this stage mayexpress concern about reverse discrimination. "Recognition of the fact that differences do existcarries a threat," he says. The reaction is to defend ones self. Bennett recommends listeningcarefully to the persons fears and to help them understand how the organization will continue toextend opportunities to this persons cultural group, even as efforts expand to include othercultural groups.The model predicts that as time goes by, people can move from defense (stage two) intominimization (stage three). "With minimization, theres more recognition that were dealing withpeople that are different, but theres still resistance to that idea," Bennett explains. "The belief isthat somehow if we are more open in making sure that equal opportunity exists, everyone shouldbe grateful and follow a set of rules." Someone in this stage may say, "Why cant we all just beAmericans?" A person at this stage hopes that we will all converge into a single cultural position.Of course, this position assumes people are able and willing to shed their culture and take onAmerican culture.How to address backlashBennett recommends several approaches to addressing backlash:·Cultural Self-Awareness: Help employees develop cultural awareness, including (ifapplicable) identification of European American ethnicity versus stopping at a more specificcultural self-awareness (such as Italian or Irish).·Recognition of Cultural Capital: Prepare employees to deal with issues of privilege in anon-threatening way. Help them to identify their own cultural capital (what it means to belong totheir own group and how that translates into institutional privilege).·Establishing a Cultural Core: Facilitate an exploration of value commitment in the contextof intercultural relativity.In other words, we need to recognize that our values are culturally based. Then, we must developthe capability of working effectively with people with different values without feeling the need togive up our own values system. "I find that most diversity practitioners dont have the ability to dealwith this," He says. "[The tendency is to think] if there arent any basic values, which by the wayare mine, how do we work and live ethically?"
  3. 3. Bennett envisions this model extending beyond domestic to international diversity efforts. "Globaldiversity is the recognition and development of skills to deal with differences on both internationaland domestic fronts," says Bennett.Many organizations realize that diversity efforts involve on-going change strategies rather thanone-time training events.There is also a move toward coupling international and domestic diversity, and aligningintercultural competence with leadership development. "The danger [in these trends] of course isthat international issues may be seen as diffusing other important [domestic diversity] issues,"Bennett cautions. Our challenge, then, is to maintain the emphasis on domestic issues within thecontext of the larger global diversity effort.Stages of Intercultural SensitivityIn the 80s and 90s organizations have attempted to go beyond mere discrimination issues andeven to "celebrate diversity." However, celebration of diversity falls far short of what is needed foreffective collaboration between mainstream agencies and ethnic minority communities. Fororganizations or individuals to move beyond "celebration" to a real ability to work appropriatelywith cultural difference requires a planned sequence of development.Bennett describes six stages of development in intercultural sensitivity. The stages provide a goodframework for determining how to work with and improve the capacity for intercultural sensitivityand collaboration. Some of his stages of "cultural sensitivity" include behaviors or adaptations theauthors include under the definition of "cultural competence."1. Bennett refers to the first stage of the model as "denial." It means that people in this stage arevery unaware of cultural difference. If mainstream agency staff are in this stage of interculturalsensitivity, a huge problem can be expected in the delivery of education, health, and socialservices for ethnic minorities, a gap that does currently exist when these groups are compared toAnglo Americans. The task for staff at this first stage of intercultural sensitivity is to recognizecultural differences that are escaping their notice.2. Whereas in the first stage we do not "see" cultural differences, in the second stage of culturalcompetence we do perceive cultural differences; however, differences from ourselves or thenorms of our group are labeled very negatively. They are experienced as a threat to the centralityand "rightness" of our own value system. Bennett calls this stage "defense."3. In the third stage of intercultural sensitivity, minimization, we try to avoid stereotypes and evenappreciate differences in language and culture. However, we still view many of our own values asuniversal, rather than viewing them simply as part of our own ethnicity. The task at the third levelof intercultural sensitivity is to learn more about our own culture and to avoid projecting that cultureonto other peoples experience.This stage is particularly difficult to pass through when one cultural group has vast andunrecognized privileges when compared to other groups. This problem is so invisible that personsin mainstream agencies are often mystified when representatives of ethnic minorities consistently
  4. 4. withdraw from collaborative activities.4. A reasonable goal for many mainstream agencies is to ensure that all staff achieve at least thefourth developmental level in intercultural sensitivity. The fourth stage in Bennetts model requiresus to be able to shift perspective, while still maintaining our commitments to values. The task inthis stage is to understand that the same behavior can have different meanings in differentcultures. The comparisons that follow in the Toolkit can be particularly helpful for staff ofmainstream agencies to improve their intercultural sensitivity in this stage of development. In orderfor collaboration to be successful long-term, this stage of intercultural sensitivity must be reachedby the participants of the collaborative process. Bennett calls this stage "acceptance."5. The fifth stage of intercultural sensitivity, adaptation, may allow the person to function in abicultural capacity. In this stage, a person is able to take the perspective of another culture andoperate successfully within that culture. This ability usually develops in a two-part sequence. Itrequires that the person know enough about his or her own culture and a second culture to allow amental Shift into the value scheme of the other culture, and an evaluation of behavior based on itsnorms, not the norms of the first individual culture of origin. This is referred to as "cognitiveadaptation." The more advanced form of adaptation is "behavioral adaptation," in which the personcan produce behaviors appropriate to the norms of the second culture. Persons serving as liaisonsbetween a mainstream agency and an ethnic minority group need to be at this level of interculturalsensitivity.6. In the sixth stage, the person can shift perspectives and frames of reference from one culture toanother in a natural way. They become adept at evaluating any situation from multiple frames ofreference. Some representatives in cross-cultural collaboration may reach this level, but mostprobably will not.Stage six requires in-depth knowledge of at least two cultures (ones own and another), and theability to shift easily into the other cultural frame of reference. The task at this level of developmentis to handle the identity issues that emerge from this cultural flexibility. Bennett calls this final stageof intercultural sensitivity "integration."Building Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI), a tool to build individual and team effectivenessThe ability to communicate effectively with people of different backgrounds, cultures, orperspectives is essential to creating an inclusive, productive, and innovative work environment.This is the basis for leveraging peoples inputs to improve business results.Each member of a team or an organization must build this competence to a degree consistent withtheir responsibilities and work. It is therefore important to be able to measure interculturalsensitivity and guide development for individuals, teams, and organizations.The Intercultural Development Inventory, developed by Dr. Mitchell Hammer and Dr. MiltonBennett, is a 50-item, theory-based paper and pencil or web-based instrument that measuresintercultural sensitivity as conceptualized in Dr. Bennetts Developmental Model of InterculturalSensitivity (DMIS).The DMIS is a framework for explaining the reactions of people to cultural differences. The
  5. 5. underlying assumption of the model is that as ones experience of cultural differences becomesmore complex, ones potential competence in intercultural interactions increases. Dr. Bennett hasidentified a set of fundamental cognitive structures (or "worldviews") that act as orientations tocultural difference.The worldviews vary from more ethnocentric to more ethnorelative. According to the DMIS theory,more ethnorelative worldviews have more potential to generate the attitudes, knowledge, andbehavior that constitute intercultural competence.The IDI measures an individuals and/or groups fundamental worldview orientation to culturaldifference, and thus the individual or group capacity for intercultural competence. As a theory-based test, the IDI meets the standard scientific criteria for a valid and reliable psychometricinstrument.Key Characteristics of the IDIThe IDI is currently administered as a paper and pencil instrument composed of 50 questions thatare designed to measure an individuals sensitivity to and awareness of cultural differences. Thesurvey consists of statements reflecting attitudes toward cultural difference, and responses arescored on a five-point Likert-type scale. The instrument takes approximately 20 to 30 minutes tocomplete. The results are compiled and a graphic profile of an individual or groups predominantstage of intercultural development is generated. In addition, IDI results provide a textualinterpretation of an individual or groups stage of development and associated transition issues.Administration of the IDI is often accompanied by a pre-interview, in which respondents are askedabout their backgrounds and prior experiences with different cultures. In addition, individuals andgroups are provided with their IDI results in conjunction with a mandatory debriefing session that isfacilitated by a trained and certified IDI administrator.The IDI is a proprietary instrument that may only be administered by individuals who receivecertification from the Intercultural Communication Institute (ICI).ConclusionToday, the importance of intercultural competence in both global and domestic contexts is wellrecognized. Bennett (1986, 1993b) posited a framework for conceptualizing dimensions ofintercultural competence in his developmental model of intercultural sensitivity (DMIS). The DMISconstitutes a progression of worldview "orientations toward cultural difference" that comprise thepotential for increasingly more sophisticated intercultural experiences. Three ethnocentricorientations, where ones culture is experienced as central to reality (Denial, Defense,Minimization), and three ethnorelative orientations, where ones culture is experienced in thecontext of other cultures (Acceptance, Adaptation, Integration), are identified in the DMIS.References1.Bennett, M.J. (1986). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of interculturalsensitivity. In R.M. Paige (Ed.) Cross-cultural orientation: New conceptualizations andapplications (pp. 27-70). New York: University Press of America.
  6. 6. 2.Bennett, M.J. (1993). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of interculturalsensitivity. In R. M. Paige (Ed.), Education for the intercultural experience (pp. 21-71). Yarmouth,ME: Intercultural Press.3.Bennett, M.J. & Hammer, M. (1998).4.Bikson, T.K., & Law, S.A. (1994). Global preparedness and human resources. SantaMonica, CA: Rand Institute.5.Dougherty, D., Lynch, R.A., & Ohles, F. (2003). Review of the Intercultural DevelopmentInventory (IDI) for assessing outcomes of a liberal arts education. Center of Inquiry in the LiberalArts: Wabash, IN.6.Endicott, L., Bock, T., & Narvaez, D. (2002, April). Learning processes at the intersection ofethical and intercultural education. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the AmericanEducational Research Association, New Orleans.7.Paige, R., Jacobs-Cassuto, M., Yershova, Y.A., & DeJaeghere, J. (2003). Assessingintercultural sensitivity: An empirical analysis of Hammer and Bennetts Intercultural DevelopmentInventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27: 467-486.About AuthorSanjeev HimachaliE-mail:, sanjeev.himachali@gmail.comBlog: can read my ITES-BPO related articles at and (Himachali) Sharma, is a 29 yrs of age from India, having six years of experience in"Human Resource Development". By qualification, he is Bachelor of Science and Masters inBusiness Administration. He is also a Motivational and Inspirational writer and speaker.Article Source: ====
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