Tangible Input Devices
for Digital Fabrication
Benjamin A. Leduc-Mills
Proposal Defense
October 3, 2013
Roadmap
 Background & Motivation
 Related Work
 Current State of Affairs
 Proposed Work
 Risks, Limitations, and Outc...
The Era of Personal Fabrication
 Gershenfeld and Anderson
 Unprecedented ability for individuals to manufacture on
a sma...
3D Printing and Children
 3D printing is permeating educational spaces and can
be a tool for learning
 Support for novic...
Goals
 Design a class of TUIs that facilitate exploration, play, and
design for 3D printers.
 Draw on the history of tan...
Related Work: Major Themes
 “Things to Learn With” – educational objects
 Embodied Cognition – a body-centric view of co...
Related Work: Educational Objects
 Froebel‟s Gifts
 Montessori Manipulatives
 Piaget‟s Genetic Epistemology
 Papert & ...
Related Work: Embodied Cognition
 Cognitive processes are „deeply rooted‟ in physical
interactions (e.g. learning readine...
Related Work: Embodied Interfaces
 Tangibles + Embodied Cognition = Embodied Interfaces
 Digital Manipulatives (Resnick)...
Related Work: Approaches
 Modeling Tools
 „Smart‟ Blocks
 Interactive Fabrication Tools
 3D Printing
Modeling Tools
HyperGami & Topobo
„Smart‟ Blocks
RoBlocks & Activecube
Interactive Fabrication
Shaper & Constructable
3D Printing
KidCAD & Easigami
Current Status
(AKA the work I‟ve already done)
UCube (v1): Hardware
Grid, Tower, and Switch
paradigm
4x4x4 Input Space (64
possible points)
System state sent to a
softwa...
UCube: Software
Real-time representation
Interpretation of input:
convex hull, knot/path
„Edit‟ mode for convex
hull
Expor...
UCube: Study 1
14 Participants – 5 girls, 9
boys
5 groups of 2, 1 group of 4
Screen-based modeling
tasks – side by side
sc...
UCube: Study 1 Results
4 groups (including the
group of four) completed
all the shapes
1 group ran out of time
after 3 sha...
UCube: Study 2
10 participants: 8 boys, 2 girls
2 exercises: modeling &
matching
9 shapes, cube in each (10 tasks)
Modelin...
Study 2 Results: Modeling
Five shapes: cube, a
tetrahedron, a diamond, a house
(a cube with a pyramid on
top), and an irre...
Study 2 Results: Matching
Of 50 matching tasks, 0
objects were chosen
incorrectly
Most matches were
completed in 20 second...
SnapCAD: Hardware
Formerly UCube v2
7x7x7 input space (343
points)
Removable magnetic LED
boards – multiple
colors, multip...
SnapCAD: Software
Multiple colors of convex
hull
3D Tic-Tac-Toe
implementation
Minimal Spanning Tree
(MST) mode
Edit mode ...
PopCAD
Pop-Up Book, paper-
friendly electronics
Lighter, Cheaper, Portable
3x3x3 input space –
27 input points
Capacitive ...
Proposed Work
Technical Additions
SnapCAD
Focus on multi-shape and mutli-
player capabilities
Colors++, Avoid Red+Green
Explore 2-shape modeling
operations ...
PopCAD
Exploration of paper as
material – can paper
mechanisms give rise to new
modeling operations?
Embedding new sensors...
Proposed Work
User Studies
User Study 1: SnapCAD
 12-30 Participants, 11-14
years old
 6 exercises: hull
modeling, path
modeling, mst modeling, 2
h...
User Study 2: PopCAD
 10-15 Participants, 11-14
years old
 3 modeling exercises plus
freehand activity
 Convex hull, pa...
Timeline
Task Timeline Notes
User Study Logistics Sept-Oct IRB & Site Approval
Technical Additions Sept-Oct As Outlined in...
Risks
 These are unproven interfaces – may be completely
unsuitable
 May be useable, but viscerally unappealing to targe...
Limitations
 Many modeling operations are impossible
(curves, scaling, extrusion, etc.)
 Not a catch-all or professional...
Outcomes
 Argue convincingly that embodied + tangible devices
can aid in modeling for 3D printing
 Suggest scaffolding o...
Conclusions
 A novel body of work: 3 devices, 4 user studies
 Significant contribution that is timely and important
 A ...
Thank You
Questions?
References
 [1] The printed world, http://www.economist.com/node/18114221, (2011).
 [2] D. ABRAHAMSON AND D. TRNINIC, To...
References (con‟t.)
 13] B. HART, Will 3d printing change the world?, http://www.forbes.com/sites/gcaptain/2012/03/06/wil...
More References!
 [25] S. MUELLER, P. LOPES, AND P. BAUDISCH, Interactive construction: interactive fabrica- tion of func...
Last of the references.
 [36] K. D. WILLIS, C. XU, K.-J. WU, G. LEVIN, AND M. D. GROSS, Interactive
fabrication: new inte...
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  • ----- Meeting Notes (9/25/13 12:01) -----Thingiverse
  • ----- Meeting Notes (9/25/13 12:01) -----1837, 1907 Casa Dei Bambini
  • ----- Meeting Notes (9/25/13 12:01) -----Susan Goldin-Meadow, George Lakoff & Rapheal Nunez, Klemmer - why bodies matter
  • ----- Meeting Notes (9/25/13 12:01) -----Modular Robotics
  • Proposal defense

    1. 1. Tangible Input Devices for Digital Fabrication Benjamin A. Leduc-Mills Proposal Defense October 3, 2013
    2. 2. Roadmap  Background & Motivation  Related Work  Current State of Affairs  Proposed Work  Risks, Limitations, and Outcomes
    3. 3. The Era of Personal Fabrication  Gershenfeld and Anderson  Unprecedented ability for individuals to manufacture on a small scale  3D printing a major focus
    4. 4. 3D Printing and Children  3D printing is permeating educational spaces and can be a tool for learning  Support for novice designers can be better – download & print is not meaningful  Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) informed by embodied cognition and constructionist traditions is a promising avenue for research
    5. 5. Goals  Design a class of TUIs that facilitate exploration, play, and design for 3D printers.  Draw on the history of tangible learning tools and embodied cognition to situate and inform the TUI designs  Evaluate the TUIs to gauge usability and learning potential among tweens and young teens (11-14)
    6. 6. Related Work: Major Themes  “Things to Learn With” – educational objects  Embodied Cognition – a body-centric view of cognitive development  Embodied Interfaces – „smart‟ tangible devices, that combine ideas from both
    7. 7. Related Work: Educational Objects  Froebel‟s Gifts  Montessori Manipulatives  Piaget‟s Genetic Epistemology  Papert & Computational Constructionism
    8. 8. Related Work: Embodied Cognition  Cognitive processes are „deeply rooted‟ in physical interactions (e.g. learning readiness by hand gesture)  Embodied Mathematics – collection, construction, stick manipulations, walking along a path  Embodied Design – encouraging thinking through doing
    9. 9. Related Work: Embodied Interfaces  Tangibles + Embodied Cognition = Embodied Interfaces  Digital Manipulatives (Resnick)  Tangible Bits (Ishii)  Embodied Design (Klemmer et al., Antle)
    10. 10. Related Work: Approaches  Modeling Tools  „Smart‟ Blocks  Interactive Fabrication Tools  3D Printing
    11. 11. Modeling Tools HyperGami & Topobo
    12. 12. „Smart‟ Blocks RoBlocks & Activecube
    13. 13. Interactive Fabrication Shaper & Constructable
    14. 14. 3D Printing KidCAD & Easigami
    15. 15. Current Status (AKA the work I‟ve already done)
    16. 16. UCube (v1): Hardware Grid, Tower, and Switch paradigm 4x4x4 Input Space (64 possible points) System state sent to a software program
    17. 17. UCube: Software Real-time representation Interpretation of input: convex hull, knot/path „Edit‟ mode for convex hull Export to .STL Save, Load, Spline, Wireframe
    18. 18. UCube: Study 1 14 Participants – 5 girls, 9 boys 5 groups of 2, 1 group of 4 Screen-based modeling tasks – side by side screens, one live, one target shape 5 target shapes: straight vertical line, diagonal line, a cube, a triangular prism, and an irregular polyhedron
    19. 19. UCube: Study 1 Results 4 groups (including the group of four) completed all the shapes 1 group ran out of time after 3 shapes 1 group modeled 1 shape Sessions lasted 17-30 minutes 24/30 tasks successful – 80%
    20. 20. UCube: Study 2 10 participants: 8 boys, 2 girls 2 exercises: modeling & matching 9 shapes, cube in each (10 tasks) Modeling: model on UCube from 3D-printed models Progression from memory, holding shape, using software Matching: given a set of lights on the UCube, choose the correct 3D-printed model out of a set
    21. 21. Study 2 Results: Modeling Five shapes: cube, a tetrahedron, a diamond, a house (a cube with a pyramid on top), and an irregular polyhedron • 21 of 50 from memory • 12 of 50 holding model • 8 of 50 with software Total = 41/50 or 82% Of 9 misses, 7 were irregular polygon Remaining misses both from same participant (the youngest)
    22. 22. Study 2 Results: Matching Of 50 matching tasks, 0 objects were chosen incorrectly Most matches were completed in 20 seconds or less
    23. 23. SnapCAD: Hardware Formerly UCube v2 7x7x7 input space (343 points) Removable magnetic LED boards – multiple colors, multiple shapes, multi-player games More robust, studier design Bigger, more immersive, more embodied?
    24. 24. SnapCAD: Software Multiple colors of convex hull 3D Tic-Tac-Toe implementation Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) mode Edit mode for path & MST Width slider for path & MST All exportable to .STL
    25. 25. PopCAD Pop-Up Book, paper- friendly electronics Lighter, Cheaper, Portable 3x3x3 input space – 27 input points Capacitive switches toggle LEDs on and off Software has been adapted for PopCAD
    26. 26. Proposed Work Technical Additions
    27. 27. SnapCAD Focus on multi-shape and mutli- player capabilities Colors++, Avoid Red+Green Explore 2-shape modeling operations – union, difference, intersection Two shapes occupying the same point Other modeling modes - Curves? Voronoi mesh? Recursion? 2 paths, 2 minimal spanning trees
    28. 28. PopCAD Exploration of paper as material – can paper mechanisms give rise to new modeling operations? Embedding new sensors Multiple, networked, pop-up books? Gives rise to other kinds of cooperative/competitive operations Redesign – switch placement, tower spacing, paper choice, origin marker
    29. 29. Proposed Work User Studies
    30. 30. User Study 1: SnapCAD  12-30 Participants, 11-14 years old  6 exercises: hull modeling, path modeling, mst modeling, 2 hull modeling, 3D tic-tic- toe, „freehand‟ activity  Hull, path, mst – brief demo, then 3 modeling tasks from 3D-printed models  2 hull – model from side-by- side screen comparison (x3)  Tic-Tac-Toe – 3 games  Freehand exercise to gauge expressiveness, desired capabilities  Measure successful completion (or lack thereof), time to completion, and observational notes  User instructed to think aloud  Audio, Video, and screen capture for additional analysis
    31. 31. User Study 2: PopCAD  10-15 Participants, 11-14 years old  3 modeling exercises plus freehand activity  Convex hull, path, minimal spanning tree  5 3D-printed shapes for each mode  Measure successful completion (or lack thereof), time to completion, and observational notes  Track new vs. overlapping participants  User to think aloud  Photography and Screen Capture for further analysis
    32. 32. Timeline Task Timeline Notes User Study Logistics Sept-Oct IRB & Site Approval Technical Additions Sept-Oct As Outlined in Proposed Work Conduct User Studies Nov-Jan SnapCAD & PopCAD Studies Write Up Results Feb-March Analyze & Write Up Data Write Dissertation April-June Put it all together Defend Dissertation June Defend
    33. 33. Risks  These are unproven interfaces – may be completely unsuitable  May be useable, but viscerally unappealing to target group  Practical roadblocks: device malfunction, loss of study data, lack of sufficient participants
    34. 34. Limitations  Many modeling operations are impossible (curves, scaling, extrusion, etc.)  Not a catch-all or professional solution, but a part of an „ecosystem‟ of next generation fabrication tools  Learning outcomes are not truly being measured, merely hinted at through the related literature and the user studies
    35. 35. Outcomes  Argue convincingly that embodied + tangible devices can aid in modeling for 3D printing  Suggest scaffolding of mathematical and spatial reasoning skills  Make comparisons between devices, modeling modes, tasks
    36. 36. Conclusions  A novel body of work: 3 devices, 4 user studies  Significant contribution that is timely and important  A path for future research on embodied devices for digital fabrication
    37. 37. Thank You Questions?
    38. 38. References  [1] The printed world, http://www.economist.com/node/18114221, (2011).  [2] D. ABRAHAMSON AND D. TRNINIC, Toward an embodied-interaction design framework for mathematical concepts, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, IDC ‟11, New York, NY, USA, 2011, ACM, pp. 1–10.  [3] C. ANDERSON, Makers: The New Industrial Revolution, Random House, 2012.  [4] A. N. ANTLE, M. DROUMEVA, AND D. HA, Thinking with hands: an embodied approach to the analysis of children’s interaction with computational objects, in CHI ‟09 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ‟09, New York, NY, USA, 2009, ACM, pp. 4027–4032.  [5] A. BEVANS, Y.-T. HSIAO, AND A. ANTLE, Supporting children’s creativity through tan- gible user interfaces, in CHI ‟11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ‟11, New York, NY, USA, 2011, ACM, pp. 1741–1746.  [6] A. CLARK, Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again, A Bradford book, MIT Press, 1998.  [7] M. EISENBERG, W. MACKAY, A. DRUIN, S. LEHMAN, AND M. RESNICK, Real meets virtual: blending real-world artifacts with computational media, in Conference Com- panion on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‟96, New York, NY, USA, 1996, ACM, pp. 159–160.  [8] M. EISENBERG, A. NISHIOKA, AND M. E. SCHREINER, Helping users think in three dimensions: steps toward incorporating spatial cognition in user modelling, in Proceed- ings of the 2nd international conference on Intelligent user interfaces, IUI ‟97, New York, NY, USA, 1997, ACM, pp. 113–120.  [9] S. FOLLMER AND H. ISHII, Kidcad: digitally remixing toys through tangible tools, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‟12, New York, NY, USA, 2012, ACM, pp. 2401–2410.  [10] F. FROEBEL AND J. JARVIS, The Education of Man, A. Lovell Company, New York, 1886.  [11] N. GERSHENFELD, Fab: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop–from Personal Com-puters to Personal Fabrication, Basic Books, Inc., New York, NY, USA, 2007.  [12] S. GOLDIN-MEADOW, Hearing gesture: How our hands help us think, Harvard Univer-sity Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003.
    39. 39. References (con‟t.)  13] B. HART, Will 3d printing change the world?, http://www.forbes.com/sites/gcaptain/2012/03/06/will-3d-printing-change- the-world/, (2012).  [14] Y. HUANG AND M. EISENBERG, Easigami: virtual creation by physical folding, in Pro- ceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embod- ied Interaction, TEI ‟12, New York, NY, USA, 2012, ACM, pp. 41–48.  [15] B. INHELDER AND J. PIAGET, The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Ado- lescence : An Essay on the Construction of Formal Operational Structures., Basic, 1958.  [16] H. ISHII, Tangible bits: beyond pixels, in Proceedings of the 2nd international con- ference on Tangible and embedded interaction, TEI ‟08, New York, NY, USA, 2008, ACM, pp. xv–xxv.  [17] H. ISHII AND B. ULLMER, Tangible bits: towards seamless interfaces between people, bits and atoms, in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human factors in computing systems, CHI ‟97, New York, NY, USA, 1997, ACM, pp. 234–241.  [18] G. JOHNSON, M. GROSS, E. Y.-L. DO, AND J. HONG, Sketch it, make it: sketching precise drawings for laser cutting, in CHI ‟12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ‟12, New York, NY, USA, 2012, ACM, pp. 1079–1082.  [19] S. R. KLEMMER, B. HARTMANN, AND L. TAKAYAMA, How bodies matter: five themes for interaction design, in Proceedings of the 6th conference on Designing Interactive systems, DIS ‟06, New York, NY, USA, 2006, ACM, pp. 140–149.  EZ, Where Mathematics Come From: How The Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics Into Being, Basic Books, Inc., 2001.  [21] B. LEDUC-MILLS AND M. EISENBERG, The ucube: a child-friendly device for introduc- tory three-dimensional design, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, IDC ‟11, New York, NY, USA, 2011, ACM, pp. 72–80.  [22] B. LEDUC-MILLS, H. PROFITA, AND M. EISENBERG, “seeing solids” via patterns of light: evaluating a tangible 3d-input device, in Proceedings of the 11th International Confer- ence on Interaction Design and Children, IDC ‟12, New York, NY, USA, 2012, ACM, pp. 377–380.  [23] D. A. MELLIS, S. JACOBY, L. BUECHLEY, H. PERNER-WILSON, AND J. QI, Microcon- trollers as material: crafting circuits with paper, conductive ink, electronic components, and an ”untoolkit”, in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Tangi- ble, Embedded and Embodied Interaction, TEI ‟13, New York, NY, USA, 2013, ACM, pp. 83–90.  [24] M. MONTESSORI, The Montessori Method, Frederick Stokes Co., New York, NY, 1912.
    40. 40. More References!  [25] S. MUELLER, P. LOPES, AND P. BAUDISCH, Interactive construction: interactive fabrica- tion of functional mechanical devices, in Proceedings of the 25th annual ACM sympo- sium on User interface software and technology, UIST ‟12, New York, NY, USA, 2012, ACM, pp. 599– 606.  [26] S. PAPERT, Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas, Basic Books, Inc., 1908.  [27] J. QI AND L. BUECHLEY, Electronic popables: exploring paper-based computing through an interactive pop-up book, in Proceedings of the fourth international conference on Tangible, embedded, and embodied interaction, TEI ‟10, New York, NY, USA, 2010, ACM, pp. 121–128.  [28] H. S. RAFFLE, A. J. PARKES, AND H. ISHII, Topobo: a constructive assembly system with kinetic memory, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‟04, New York, NY, USA, 2004, ACM, pp. 647–654.  [29] B. REPACHOLI AND A. GOPNIK, Early reasoning about desires: Evidence from 14- and 18-month-olds., in Developmental Psychology, 1997, pp. 12–21.  [30] M. RESNICK, All i really need to know (about creative thinking) i learned (by studying how children learn) in kindergarten, in Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCHI confer- ence on Creativity & cognition, C&C ‟07, New York, NY, USA, 2007, ACM, pp. 1–6.  [31] M. RESNICK, F. MARTIN, R. BERG, R. BOROVOY, V. COLELLA, K. KRAMER, AND B. SIL- VERMAN, Digital manipulatives: new toys to think with, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‟98, New York, NY, USA, 1998, ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., pp. 281–287.  [32] E. SCHWEIKARDT AND M. D. GROSS, roblocks: a robotic construction kit for mathe- matics and science education, in Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Multimodal interfaces, ICMI ‟06, New York, NY, USA, 2006, ACM, pp. 72–75.  [33] J. P. SPENCER, M. CLEARFIELD, D. CORBETTA, B. ULRICH, P. BUCHANAN, AND G. SCHONER, Moving toward a grand theory of development: In memory of esther thelen., in Child Development, 2006, pp. 1521–1538.  [34] R. WATANABE, Y. ITOH, M. ASAI, Y. KITAMURA, F. KISHINO, AND H. KIKUCHI, The soul of activecube: implementing a flexible, multimodal, three-dimensional spatial tangible interface, Comput. Entertain., 2 (2004), pp. 15–15.  [35] K. D. WILLIS, J. LIN, J. MITANI, AND T. IGARASHI, Spatial sketch: bridging between movement & fabrication, in Proceedings of the fourth international conference on Tangible, embedded, and embodied interaction, TEI ‟10, New York, NY, USA, 2010, ACM, pp. 5–12.
    41. 41. Last of the references.  [36] K. D. WILLIS, C. XU, K.-J. WU, G. LEVIN, AND M. D. GROSS, Interactive fabrication: new interfaces for digital fabrication, in Proceedings of the fifth international confer- ence on Tangible, embedded, and embodied interaction, TEI ‟11, New York, NY, USA, 2011, ACM, pp. 69–72.  [37] M. WILSON, Six views of embodied cognition, Psychonomic Bulletin Review, 9 (2002), pp. 625–636.  [38] A. ZORAN AND J. A. PARADISO, Freed: a freehand digital sculpting tool, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‟13, New York, NY, USA, 2013, ACM, pp. 2613–2616.  [39] O. ZUCKERMAN, S. ARIDA, AND M. RESNICK, Extending tangible interfaces for educa- tion: digital montessori-inspired manipulatives, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Confer- ence on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ‟05, New York, NY, USA, 2005, ACM, pp. 859–868.

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