Late Roman Republic and Caesar Lecture


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  • Officials stole money Latifundia: large farming estates; rich had slaves work farms
  • subsidize: government pays for part of service/food to make it more affordable for the public Bread and circuses: politicians provided cheap food and entertainment to gain votes
  • Triumvirate: a political alliance of three people Crassus: richest
  • Crossing the Rubicon: making a decision you can ’ t take back
  • 1582: Julian Calendar replaced with Gregorian Calendar, based on birth of Christ
  • March 15
  • Late Roman Republic and Caesar Lecture

    1. 1. End of the Republicand Rise of Caesar
    2. 2. Rich vs. Poor• Dishonest officials• Growing gap between rich and poor• Rich held land and most important governmentpositions• Farmers lost land to patricians who createdlatifundia• Farmers moved to cities but couldn’t find jobs
    3. 3. Attempts at Reform• Tiberius Gracchus tried to take land from therich and set up farms for the poor• Tiberius was assassinated for this in 133 BC• Gaius Gracchus (brother of Tiberius) tried toprovide subsidized food for poor• Gaius was assassinated in for this in 121 BC• Bread and circuses
    4. 4. The Army Enters Politics• Marius becomes consul in 107 BC and allowslandless men to join army, promising land andbooty• Army becomes loyal to individual generals• 82 BC: Sulla declares himself dictator after heand his army defeat Marius• Sulla makes changes to weaken the Council ofPlebs and strengthen the Senate• Leads to civil war for the next 50 years
    5. 5. First Triumvirate• 60 BC: Crassus (in Syria), Pompey (in Spain),and Julius Caesar (in Gaul) become the mostpowerful generals and form a triumvirate• Caesar invades Britain and becomes a hero tolower classes, making Senators nervous• 53 BC: Crassus dies in battle and Senate callsPompey back to Rome to rule alone• 49 BC: Senate demands Caesar give up hisarmy
    6. 6. Caesar’s Rise to Power• Caesar marches to Rome and crosses theRubicon River• 48 BC: Caesar defeats Pompey’s army• 44 BC: Caesar declares himself dictator andreplaces Senators with loyal friends
    7. 7. Caesar’s Achievements• Became popular with the poor by grantingcitizenship, adding colonies for land, andordering farms to hire free workers• Created the Julian Calendar (12 months, 365days, leap year)
    8. 8. Caesar’s Fall from Power• Enemies feared Caesar’s increasing power• Senators led by Brutus and Cassiusassassinated him in 44 BC• “Beware the Ides of March”• Leads to civil war between assassins andOctavian, Antony, and Lepidus (Caesar’sgenerals)