EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTUREBuildings:•Saqqara, Zoser’sPyramid•Pyramids of Giza
Saqqara:Zoser’s Pyramid Complex2680 BCImhotep1st generation of pyramids-juxtaposition of steps; no central axis/everything placed near perimeter wall; columns lookdoric (fluting convex); refined stone carving; 24 columns - 24 regions;
Giza:Pyramids of Chefren, Cheops and Mikerinos3rd dynasty; 2570-2500-located on border of Cairo-no large symetricalaxiis-regular geometric shapes specific to each building-compound restored by UNESCO
GREEK ARCHITECTUREBuildings:•The Megaron•Treasury of Atreus•Acropolis: (Parthenon, Propylaia,Erechteion, Temple of Athena Nike)
Megaron Megaron plan, Tiryns, late XIII (13) century BC• Architectural predecessor of the classical greek temple.• Considered the earliest architectural act• Constituted of an anteroom, an open 2 column porch, and a main hall• Built in stages: stage 1 rectangular room, stage 2: A famous megaron is in the large reception hall of the king in the palace of Tiryns• rich and lavish• marble and terracotta decoration (floors & walls)
Mycene, Treasury of Atreus, 1300-1250-tholos tomb (=beehive tomb)-built by substracting from the Earth-triangle releases a heavy load on the lintel part + lets light in
Mycene, Treasury of Atreus, 1300- 1250• A round space deeply underground used for funarial ceremonies.• Main gate; interesting how the pointed arch solves the problem of the roof: block of stone then triangle that put the weight on each side, on the pilliars. Left open maybe to let light enter in the space.• The classical shape of greekarch are the achievmentof a very long process.• Decoration attached to what is left today: hypothesis of recotruction section/ground plan (rect: actual tumb)• Inside; very smooth big blocks of stone
Athens, Acropolis, V century-destroyed & renovated multiple times-on top of hill-imposing presence of Parthenon (dedicated to Athena)-other smaller temples dedicated to Athena
ATHENS: ACROPOLIS 5th century• The acropolis: located on the top of a hill in the center of Athens. What we see result of the different stage of construction and deconstruction,• Acropolis originally a sanctuary: dedicated to the goods, very few number of athenians could enter, only the citizen. Could enter twice a year 2000 or 3000.
Propylaia, 437-432, commissoned by Perikles, architect:Mnesikles
Propylaia, 437-432, commissoned by Perikles, architect: Mnesikles• The acropolis is accessible through a system of ramps.• The citizenswere reaching the acropolis in a prossetionthrough the propilia:. Structure of Doric order• very symetrical: central corridor. C shape portical: sense of welcoming.• Building appears more imposing than it actually is because ramp underneath the portical: size and imposing position. Coming from
Temple of Athena Nike,extricated from a Turkish bastion in 1835,425
Temple of aAthena Nike• Ionic temple first example.• 4 column (tetra style), slender proportions creating an elegant and refinement usually not encountered in a building of this height.• Friezes decorated with engraved sculptures in an idealized classical style of the 5th century.• Temple rather in good shape• Erected on the ruins of a previous temple.
West side, tomb of Kekrops , maidensinstead of columns
ERECHTHEION, tomb of Kekrops 421-404/5• Magestic Doric presence.• Delicate and elegant forms that contrast with the Parthenon.• Unusually has 2 porches.• 6 female shapped column seem to casually support the porch weight on their heads.• building was lavishly decorated with wall frescoes, gilded rosettes, and an array of colored features and low relief sculptures.
The Parthenon,from 447 to 432,architects: Iktinos and Callicrates-one of 7 wonders-incarnates perfection (1st back-side-front)-each element stands orthogonally to the ground; placed inwards, platformis not flat, shaped according to curve-complexity of shape makes building look simple
The parthenonfrom 447 to 432, architects: Iktinos and Callicrates• Use of optical science to make it look straight and imposing. If the column were actually straight, they would appear shrunken in the middle, the stylobate has an upward curvature.• The columns also are made to incline inward to correct the natural appearance. They are not perpendicular to the ground. Said that they would meet at a distance of a 100 miles from the ground.• Example of the combination of technical skills and theoretical knowledge.• Columns not shape perpendicularly to the ground• Function: to host the immense statue of athena• Culmination of the doric order
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE• Buildings:• Roman city plan• Colosseum• The Basilica• The DomusromanaThe imperial palaces (domusAugustana)• Roman Imperial tombs (Trajan, Augustus, Adrianum)• Tabularium• Forum of Augustus• Pantheon• Caracalla and Diocletian baths• Triumphal arches (Septimius Severus, Costantine)
Roman cities• Idea present in the hellenic city planning• Orthogonal grid acording to the cardinal points• Two main street perpendicular intersecting at the forum which was the center of the commerce.• Designed to be practical• Fortifications around it for protection
Colosseum, Flavius’ theater, completed 80 AC617 by 511 feet
ColosseumFlavius’ theater, completed 80 AC• Theater.• the ground floor half columns are doric in style, those of the second floor are ionic and those of the upper floor Corinthian. Organized with the stable, less decorated at the bottom.• Elyptical• Velarium to cover the Colosseum• Senator first row, free men, slaves and then women.• Social cohesion again. Circle of conviniency that keep the society together.
Trier basilica, basilica of constantine• Impressive size• optical illusion - both the windows of the apse as well as the niches underneath become progressively smaller towards the middle, thus enhancing the impression of length.• now nearly empty and austere inside, the Konstantin Basilika was originally embellished with colorful marble inlay, golden mosaics, and statues.
ROME BASILICA MAXENTIUM 307-312 AD• Largest building at the time of construction• Taking from both roman bath and basilica• No columns to support the huge open space in the central nave.• Entire thing being built with arches.• Built with a folded roof which deceases the overall weight of the structure, decreasing the forces exerted on the outer arches.
Domusromana• No windows all opening to the inside of the court.• Same pattern no matter the size of the house, and the means of the owner.• Taberna: shop, atrium, cubiculum, tablinum• Rain water collected in the impluvium.
Rome palatinum hill, imperial palaces1 century AD•DomusAugustana•Flavian House
ROME, IMPERIAL PALACES 1 century AD by emperor augustus• Rome, imperial palaces: Augustus completed in the 31BC. Large vast area located on the top of the palatinun hill. Palace comes from Palatinium hill.• combination of different buildings put together. Basically a citadel with The hypodrome attached t the palace, library, tablinum (pblic function performed)• Domusaugustus was the emperor luxurious residence, private area.• The expansion of the same sequence and space that exist on a smaller scale of the domusromana.• private spectacle, public space function as well as private.• Walls covered with marble, frescos or stuck• Hypodrom: social cohesion: emperor connects to the people and vise-versa. The architecture allows this.• Domusflavia and augustus: built by emperor domitian• Ooverlooking the circus maximus
Flavian palace (domusflavia) 92 AD• Completed under Emperor Domitian in 92 AD• Used for purposes of state• Flavian house: the further addition• Has been built later but the sequence in the interieur is still the same, organized according to the same axis.• Well known for its grandeur.
Roman imperial tumb (trajanaugustus, adrianum)
Trajan column 113 AD• Famous for it’s spiral bas relief: trajan’s victorious campaign, act as a military propaganda (no blood)• Enterior of the spiral column is hollow• Associated with empirial power, built to the glory of the emperor trajan who was later on burried there.• Viewer has difficulty reading the story: active participation
Hadrian tomb• Hadrian built his own tomb instead of being buried in the augustus mausoleum• Right bank of the tiber• Decorated cylinder with a garden on top• Conversion into a military fortress, then a catle
Augustus mausoleum• Roman emperor have erected their own tomb: Augustus tomb on the map,• juxtaposition of cylinders with cypress trees planted, cypres trees, Long and slender trees with a symmetrical root the only tree being used in a cemetery because of that.• Fence to protect the holy ground• During the middle ages became a fort because of its strong structure.
BASILICA JULIA 54-48 BCE, ROME• House tribunal/ administrative office• Mostly foundations left, archeological site• stuck covered columns• Largest basilica of the forum• 3 naves, lower walls to let the light in the central one.
ROME, TABULARIUM 78BC• The city archives of Rome in which the documents of the city were located. Very imposing building.• very powerful structure that made the hill to stand straight• Bottom part large and tall fortified wall,• Second floor used of the Doric order, only decoration• Third floor no longer existant had a corynthian order colonade.• Interior vault of concrete
Rome, pantheon 125 AC• Result of a compromise or change of program in the construction. Combination of elements that have been reorganized or redesigned• use diff material according to the level. Gets lighter related to the position; less and less heavy for the construction as well as for the structure itself which then does not have to carry a very large weight• The vaults in the roof: lacunae, creating a void, lighten the dome. And create a decorative pattern as well.• Dome with opening: even lighter
Bath of Caracalla 212-216 AC• Huge complex, with large frescoed vaults• Seats for more than 1600 persons• Public library within the complex• A complex water distribution system ensured a constant flow of water from the Aqua Marcia aqueduct. Very modern system
Bath of Diocletian from 298 AC• Grandest of the public baths largest, most somptious.• The frigidarium• The caldarium• the use of external buttresses for the cross vaults were considered by some to be the first example of the scientific system of thrusts and counter-thrusts in architecture• the forms of the building were simple and give the impression of a vast amount of open space.• "manipulation of space• The exterior walls of the bath were encrusted with stucco to give the impression of stonework.• The interior parts of the bath were supported by vaulting ceilings and arches to create curvilinear lines.• The structure of the roof is a excellent example of Classical design. Architects used sloped forms to cover curved extrados (the outer surface of the arch) of the vaulted halls.
Arch of constantine 3 AC• Is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the palatine hill• to commemorate Constantine Is victory• Modelledafter the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.• four columns of Corinthian order
Constantinople,Hagia Sophia,532-537 under Justinian,Architects: Isidoros of Miletus&Anthemisios of Tralles
Hagia Sophia, 532-537 under Justinian, Architects: Isidoros of Miletus&Anthemisios of Tralles• Once a church, then a mosque• Famous for it’s dome the arcade around the dome is unbroken with 40 arched windows to bring the light inside.• he dome is carried on four concave triangular pendentives that serve to transition from the circular base of the dome to its rectangular base: pendentives never used before.• hierarchy of dome-headed elements built up to create a vast oblong interior, crowned by the main dome.• A second interesting fact about the original structure of the dome was how the architects were able to place forty windows around the base of the dome. Hagia Sophia is famous for the mystical quality of light that reflects everywhere in the interior of the nave• Lavish Mosaic and decorations
Carolingian empire, Palace of Aachen 790s charlemagne• group of buildings with residential, political and religious purposes• The Constantine Basilica in Trier, Germany was probably used as a model for Aachens Council Hall• Shape of a civil basilica with 3 apses• San Vitale Basilica in Ravenna was one of the models for the Palatine Chapel• columns are topped by Corinthian capitals.
Ca 800 germanylosch, carolingian monastery gatehouse• This edifice borrowed its three arch-shaped passageways and its sectioning by means of Classically influenced half-columns from ancient architecture with the corynthian style columns
Lateran palaceRomeConstantine theGreat in the 4thcenturyretains its originalplan:baroque
St gall plan 9th century• famous medieval architectural drawing of a monastic compound dating from the early 9th century.• only surviving major architectural drawing from the roughly 700-year period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 13th century.• depicts an entire Benedictine monastic compound• five parchments sewn together
Hildeshearly- 1001 and 1031Romanesque churcheimabbeydouble-choir basilica with two transeptsand a square tower at each crossing.
San Vitale, Ravenna The church has an octagonal plan. The building combines Roman elements: the dome, shape of doorways, and stepped towers; with Byzantine elements: polygonal apse, capitals, and narrow bricks. The church is most famous for its wealth of Byzantine mosaics,