Review of ireland 1922 1939

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Review of ireland 1922 1939

  1. 1. Review of Ireland 1923-1932 <ul><li>Presentation prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>Dominic Haugh </li></ul><ul><li>St. Particks Comprehensive School </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon </li></ul><ul><li>Co. Clare </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation can be used for educational purposes only – all rights remain with author </li></ul>
  2. 2. Review of Ireland 1922-1939 <ul><li>Political Parties 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>Cumann na nGaedheal (pro-Treaty Sinn Fein) </li></ul><ul><li>Sinn Fein (anti-Treaty) </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Party </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers Party </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cumann na nGaedheal 1923-32 <ul><li>General Election August 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Sinn Fein refuses to attend Dail (abstention) </li></ul><ul><li>Cumman na nGaedheal has majority </li></ul><ul><li>William T. Cosgrave (President of Executive) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Issues Facing Government <ul><li>Consolidating the State </li></ul><ul><li>Law and Order </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consolidating the State <ul><li>The ‘New’ Civil Service </li></ul><ul><li>The Civic Guard (the Gardai) </li></ul><ul><li>The Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Local Government </li></ul><ul><li>Founding of Fianna Fail (1926) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Law and Order <ul><li>Civic Guard (the Gardai) </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with IRA </li></ul><ul><li>The Army Mutiny 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>The Assassination of Kevin O’Higgins </li></ul><ul><li>New Laws force Fianna Fail to take the Oath of Allegiance </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Scare 1929 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Economic Difficulties <ul><li>Economic Recession (began 1921) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic problems from war </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire policies </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Balance the books </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Financial Agreement 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>Government to continue paying land annuties </li></ul>
  8. 8. Specific Measures <ul><li>1923 – cuts in pay for civil servants, teachers and gardai </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – cuts in old age pension </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – cuts taxes </li></ul><ul><li>1927 – ACC established </li></ul><ul><li>1927 – Building of Shannon Scheme </li></ul>
  9. 9. Foreign Policy <ul><li>Participation in League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in Imperial Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>1925 – The Boundary Commission </li></ul><ul><li>1931 – Statute of Westminster </li></ul>
  10. 10. Questions to Ask?? <ul><li>How successful were Cumann na nGaedheal in Power? </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidating the New State? </li></ul><ul><li>Law and Order? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fianna Fail in Power 1932-1939 <ul><li>Elected with help of Labour in 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – Snap election – win overall majority </li></ul><ul><li>Threats to the State (Law and Order) </li></ul><ul><li>1937 Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Policies </li></ul>
  12. 12. Threats to the State <ul><li>IRA </li></ul><ul><li>DeValera releases IRA men from jail </li></ul><ul><li>By 1936 uses the same powers to re-arrest them again </li></ul><ul><li>Threats from the Blueshirts </li></ul>
  13. 13. New Constitution <ul><li>Dismantling the Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>1932 – Abolished the Oath of Allegiance </li></ul><ul><li>1932 – Undermined the Governor General </li></ul><ul><li>1936 – Constitutional Amendment Act and External Relations Act </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – New Constitution </li></ul>
  14. 14. Foreign Policy <ul><li>Tied to – </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantling of the Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Economic War </li></ul>
  15. 15. Economic Policy <ul><li>More government involvement in Economy </li></ul><ul><li>More spending on housing and services </li></ul><ul><li>Drive to develop industry </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of a policy of Protectionism </li></ul><ul><li>DeValera wants to break economic links with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Drive for self-sufficiency </li></ul>
  16. 16. Economic War <ul><li>1932 – July – DeValera refuses to pay land annuities </li></ul><ul><li>Sparks Economic War with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides impose tariffs on imports </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Burn everything British but it’s coal’ </li></ul><ul><li>1935 – The Coal-Cattle Pact </li></ul><ul><li>1938 – The Anglo Irish Agreement </li></ul>
  17. 17. Questions to Ask?? <ul><li>How successful were Fianna Fail in Power? </li></ul><ul><li>Law and Order? </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Did deValera make Ireland ‘self-sufficient’? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Main Topics for Questions <ul><li>Success or failure of different policies </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing CnanG and FF in different policy areas </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing success or failure of Cosgrave and deValera </li></ul>
  19. 19. Homework <ul><li>Take each policy topic and outline one reason why you feel the government of the time were a success or failure </li></ul><ul><li>4 for Cummann na nGaedheal 1923-1932 </li></ul><ul><li>4 for Fianna Fail 1932-1939 </li></ul>

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