Ireland and world war two


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Ireland and world war two

  1. 1. Ireland and World War Two <ul><li>Leaving Cert History </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty and Partition 1912-1949 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ireland and World War Two <ul><li>Neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>Why was Ireland neutral? </li></ul><ul><li>A Pro-Allied Neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with the British </li></ul><ul><li>De Valera and the US </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Escaping the Bombs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Neutrality <ul><li>Ireland declared its neutrality on the day after war broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>The war years became known as 'the Emergency' </li></ul><ul><li>The Emergency Powers Act that gave the government extensive powers to secure public safety and the preservation of the state </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It was a true test of Irish self-determination and an assertion of sovereignty and independence. </li></ul><ul><li>It was part of a complex political strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality was also the policy of national unity </li></ul><ul><li>It was a popular among the population </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland's military weakness was glaringly exposed </li></ul>Why was Ireland neutral?
  5. 5. <ul><li>Possible because of return of the Treaty ports in 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>DeValera was disillusioned with the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>He had come to believe that small nations should not be the pawns of larger nations </li></ul><ul><li>DeValera claimed that partition remained a continued affront to Ireland and that military collaboration could not come about whilst Ireland remained divided </li></ul><ul><li>Britain briefly was willing to consider the possibility of reunification </li></ul>Why was Ireland neutral?
  6. 6. A Pro-Allied Neutrality <ul><li>It was in Ireland's economic interest to maintain trading relationships with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland supplied food to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>40,000 served in British forces </li></ul><ul><li>120,000 went to work in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Weather reports were sent secretly and RAF planes flew over Irish airspace </li></ul><ul><li>Allied prisoners were allowed to 'escape' </li></ul><ul><li>The Irish government passed on information and intelligence from diplomatic sources </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dealing with the British <ul><li>Neither Germany nor Britain gambled on invading Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Britain (by virtue of partition) had use of Irish bases, and felt that invasion would present more problems than it would solve </li></ul><ul><li>After 1941 the immediate threat to Britain receded </li></ul><ul><li>DeValera took a strong line with the IRA in order to avoid the angering Britain </li></ul><ul><li>500 IRA members spent the war interned in the Curragh </li></ul><ul><li>De Valera insisted that Hempel's (the German ambassador) radio transmitter was shut down in 1942 because American and British pressure </li></ul><ul><li>John Maffey, the British representative , developed a good working relationship with d eValera </li></ul>
  8. 8. De Valera and the US <ul><li>David Gray, the American representative, disliked d eValera and Irish neutrality </li></ul><ul><li>The 'American note' demanded that the German and Japanese missions in Dublin be closed in order to prevent details of the Normandy Landings leaking out </li></ul><ul><li>De Valera refused - the Allies imposed a ban on travel to and from Britain until after D-Day. </li></ul><ul><li>De Valera's biggest blunder was signing the book of condolence on Hitler's death </li></ul>
  9. 9. Economic Impact <ul><li>Lemass appointed Minister of Supplies 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>State shipping service established </li></ul><ul><li>Rationing to sugar, tea and fuel, then clothing and bread in 1942. Gas, electricity and petrol. Coal replaced by peat </li></ul><ul><li>The railway system badly affected. Machinery were difficult to maintain and repair </li></ul><ul><li>Imported raw materials in short supply and limits on the use of gas and electricity affected industry </li></ul><ul><li>Many factory workers were unemployed or part-time </li></ul><ul><li>Wages were controlled by the Wages Standstill Order of 1941. Inflation was high (70%), living standards fell </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration important for relieving social unrest </li></ul>
  10. 10. Agriculture <ul><li>Shortages of fertilisers </li></ul><ul><li>In 1940 compulsory tillage </li></ul><ul><li>Home produced foodstuffs </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy, sheep and cattle - exports to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers had not recovered from the economic war unable to fully benefit from British demand </li></ul><ul><li>Irish farmers suffered from an outbreak of foot-and-mouth in 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture earned money for the country </li></ul>
  11. 11. Censorship <ul><li>The censor stopped anyone from publishing information that would favour one side over another </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the war was limited to those who could receive the BBC </li></ul><ul><li>All accounts of Nazi atrocities were denounced as propaganda and the Irish lived in ignorance – most of the press colluded willingly in this </li></ul>
  12. 12. Escaping the Bombs <ul><li>Neutrality was popular - civilian escaped the suffering elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>The Belfast Blitz provided a demonstration of this </li></ul><ul><li>There were a few bombings on the South </li></ul><ul><li>One dropped on the North Strand, Dublin in May 1941 killing 28 people </li></ul><ul><li>Probably accidental but may have been a warning from the Germans about the consequences of siding with Britain </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Presentation prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>Dominic Haugh </li></ul><ul><li>St. Particks Comprehensive School </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon </li></ul><ul><li>Co. Clare </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation can be used for educational purposes only – all rights remain with author </li></ul>