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  1. 1. Threats Security Controls Protecting Information System
  2. 2. What is Information Security? Known as InfoSec, which is the practice of defending information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction. It is a general term that can be used regardless of the form the data may take (electronic, physical, etc...)
  3. 3. Two major aspects of Information Security: I.T. Security: Sometimes referred to as computer security, Information Technology Security is information security applied to technology (most often some form of computer system). It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not necessarily mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with a processor and some memory.
  4. 4. IT security specialists are almost always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that often attempt to breach into critical private information or gain control of the internal systems.
  5. 5. Two major aspects of information security: Information assurance: The act of ensuring that data is not lost when critical issues arise. These issues include but are not limited to: natural disasters, computer/server malfunction, physical theft, or any other instance where data has the potential of being lost.
  6. 6. • Since most information is stored on computers in our modern era, information assurance is typically dealt with by IT security specialists. • One of the most common methods of providing information assurance is to have an off-site backup of the data in case one of the mentioned issues arise.
  7. 7. Threats to Information System • There are many information security threats that we need to be constantly aware of and protect against in order to ensure our sensitive information remains secure.
  8. 8. Unauthorized Access – Enter at your own risk • The attempted or successful access of information or systems, without permission or rights to do so.  Ensure you have a properly configured firewall, up to date malware prevention software and all software has the latest security updates.  Protect all sensitive information, utilizing encryption where appropriate, and use strong passwords that are changed regularly.
  9. 9. Cyber Espionage – Hey, get off my network! • The act of spying through the use of computers, involving the covert access or ‘hacking’ of company or government networks to obtain sensitive information.  Be alert for social engineering attempts and verify all requests for sensitive information.  Ensure software has the latest security updates, your network is secure and monitor for unusual network behavior.
  10. 10. Malware – You installed what?! • A collective term for malicious software, such as viruses, worms and trojans; designed to infiltrate systems and information for criminal, commercial or destructive purposes.  Ensure you have a properly configured firewall, up to date malware prevention and all software has the latest security updates.  Do not click links or open attachments in emails from unknown senders, visit un-trusted websites or install dubious software.
  11. 11. Data Leakage – I seek what you leak. • The intentional or accidental loss, theft or exposure of sensitive company or personal information  Ensure all sensitive information stored on removable storage media, mobile devices or laptops is encrypted  Be mindful of what you post online, check email recipients before pressing send, and never email sensitive company information to personal email accounts
  12. 12. Mobile Device Attack – Lost, but not forgotten • The malicious attack on, or unauthorized access of mobile devices and the information stored or processed by them; performed wirelessly or through physical possession.  Keep devices with you at all times, encrypt all sensitive data and removable storage media, and use strong passwords.  Avoid connecting to insecure, un-trusted public wireless networks and ensure Bluetooth is in ‘undiscoverable’ mode.
  13. 13. Social Engineering – Go find some other mug • Tricking and manipulating others by phone, email, online or in-person, into divulging sensitive information, in order to access company information or systems.  Verify all requests for sensitive information, no matter how legitimate they may seem, and never share your passwords with anyone – not even the helpdesk.  Never part with sensitive information if in doubt, and report suspected social engineering attempts immediately.
  14. 14. Insiders – I see bad people • An employee or worker with malicious intent to steal sensitive company information, commit fraud or cause damage to company systems or information  Ensure access to sensitive information is restricted to only those that need it and revoke access when no longer required  Report all suspicious activity or workers immediately
  15. 15. Phishing – Think before you link • A form of social engineering, involving the sending of legitimate looking emails aimed at fraudulently extracting sensitive information from recipients, usually to gain access to systems or for identity theft. • Look out for emails containing unexpected or unsolicited requests for sensitive information, or contextually relevant emails from unknown senders. • Never click on suspicious looking links within emails, and report all suspected phishing attempts immediately.
  16. 16. System Compromise – Only the strong survive • A system that has been attacked and taken over by malicious individuals or ‘hackers’, usually through the exploitation of one or more vulnerabilities, and then often used for attacking other systems.  Plug vulnerable holes by ensuring software has the latest security updates and any internally developed software is adequately security reviewed.  Ensure systems are hardened and configured securely, and regularly scan them for vulnerabilities.
  17. 17. Spam – Email someone else • Unsolicited email sent in bulk to many individuals, usually for commercial gain, but increasingly for spreading malware.  Only give your email to those you trust and never post your address online for others to view.  Use a spam filter and never reply to spam emails or click links within them.
  18. 18. Denial of Service – Are you still there? • An intentional or unintentional attack on a system and the information stored on it, rendering the system unavailable and inaccessible to authorized users.  Securely configure and harden all networks and network equipment against known DoS attacks.  Monitor networks through log reviews and the use of intrusion detection or prevention systems
  19. 19. Identity Theft – You will never be me • The theft of an unknowing individual’s personal information, in order to fraudulently assume that individual’s identity to commit a crime, usually for financial gain. • Never provide personal information to un-trusted individuals or websites. • Ensure personal information is protected when stored and securely disposed of when no longer needed.
  20. 20. Protecting Information System 1. Data security is fundamental Data security is crucial to all academic, medical and business operations.  All existing and new business and data processes should include a data security review to be sure data is safe from loss and secured against unauthorized access.
  21. 21. 2. Plan ahead Create a plan to review your data security status and policies and create routine processes to access, handle and store the data safely as well as archive unneeded data.  Make sure you and your colleagues know how to respond if you have a data loss or data breach incident.
  22. 22. 3. Know what data you have The first step to secure computing is knowing what data you have and what levels of protection are required to keep the data both confidential and safe from loss.
  23. 23. 4. Scale down the data Keep only the data you need for routine current business, safely archive or destroy older data, and remove it from all computers and other devices (smart phones, laptops, flash drives, external hard disks).
  24. 24. 5. Lock up! Physical security is the key to safe and confidential computing. All the passwords in the world won't get your laptop back if the computer itself is stolen. Back up the data to a safe place in the event of loss.
  25. 25. Information Security Controls Security is generally defined as the freedom from danger or as the condition of safety.  Computer security, specifically, is the protection of data in a system against unauthorized disclosure, modification, or destruction and protection of the computer system itself against unauthorized use, modification, or denial of service.
  26. 26. Physical Controls  It is the use of locks, security guards, badges, alarms, and similar measures to control access to computers, related equipment (including utilities), and the processing facility itself.  In addition, measures are required for protecting computers, related equipment, and their contents from espionage, theft, and destruction or damage by accident, fire, or natural disaster (e.g., floods and earthquakes).
  27. 27. Technical Controls Involves the use of safeguards incorporated in computer hardware, operations or applications software, communications hardware and software, and related devices.  Technical controls are sometimes referred to as logical controls.
  28. 28. Technical Controls  Preventive technical controls are used to prevent unauthorized personnel or programs from gaining remote access to computing resources. Examples of these controls include: o Access control software oAntivirus software oLibrary control systems oPasswords oSmart cards oEncryption oDial-up access control and callback systems
  29. 29. Administrative Controls  Consists of management constraints, operational procedures, accountability procedures, and supplemental administrative controls established to provide an acceptable level of protection for computing resources.  In addition, administrative controls include procedures established to ensure that all personnel who have access to computing resources have the required authorizations and appropriate security clearances.
  30. 30. Administrative Controls  Preventive administrative controls are personnel-oriented techniques for controlling people’s behavior to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of computing data and programs. Examples of preventive administrative controls include: o Security awareness and technical training o Separation of duties o Procedures for recruiting and terminating employees o Security policies and procedures o Supervision. o Disaster recovery, contingency, and emergency plans o User registration for computer access
  31. 31. Web 2.0  Sites that allow users to do more than just retrieve information.  Instead of merely reading, a user is invited to comment on published articles, or create a user account or profile on the site, which may enable increased participation.  By increasing emphasis on these already-extant capabilities, they encourage the user to rely more on their browser for user interface, application software and file storage facilities.
  32. 32. Web 2.0 This has been called "network as platform" computing. Major features of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, user created Web sites, self-publishing platforms, tagging, and social bookmarking. Users can provide the data that is on a Web 2.0 site and exercise some control over that data.
  33. 33. Web 2.0 Web 2.0 offers all users the same freedom to contribute. While this opens the possibility for serious debate and collaboration, it also increases the incidence of "spamming" and "trolling" by unscrupulous or misanthropic users.
  34. 34. Features of Web 2.0 Technologies  Folksonomy- free classification of information; allows users to collectively classify and find information (e.g. Tagging)  Rich User Experience- dynamic content; responsive to user input  User as a Contributor- information flows two ways between site owner and site user by means of evaluation, review, and commenting  Long tail- services offered on demand basis; profit is realized through monthly service subscriptions more than one-time purchases of goods over the network  User Participation - site users add content for others to see (e.g. Crowdsourcing)
  35. 35. Features of Web 2.0 Technologies  Software as a service - Web 2.0 sites developed API to allow automated usage, such as by an app or mashup  Basic Trust - contributions are available for the world to use, reuse, or re-purpose  Dispersion - content delivery uses multiple channels (e.g. file sharing, permalinks); digital resources and services are sought more than physical goods
  36. 36. Features of Web 2.0 Technologies Web 2.0 can be described in three parts:  Rich Internet application (RIA) — defines the experience brought from desktop to browser whether it is from a graphical point of view or usability point of view.  Web-oriented architecture (WOA) — is a key piece in Web 2.0, which defines how Web 2.0 applications expose their functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate the functionality providing a set of much richer applications. Examples are feeds, RSS, Web Services, mash-ups.
  37. 37. Features of Web 2.0 Technologies Web 2.0 can be described in three parts: Social Web — defines how Web 2.0 tends to interact much more with the end user and make the end-user an integral part.
  38. 38. Categories of Web 2.0 1. Mashups - sites using existing technologies for an entirely new  It takes the functions of a wiki and overlays it with Google Maps for an entirely new kind of map. You can see for more mashups. 2. Aggregators - A site or program that gathers data from multiple sources and organizes the information to present in a new, more streamlined or appropriate format. Examples: is a top aggregator site. So is Slashdot for the more technical people. And of course our dearly beloved, Google (and any other search engine for that matter) are the mothers of all aggregators.
  39. 39. Categories of Web 2.0 3. Social Networking - Websites focusing on connecting people with other people directly like MySpace. 4. Social Media - User-generated content like blogs or Flickr. 5. Video - Online television such as YouTube. 6. Web Applications - online programs that can do virtually everything your existing software programs can do. Zoho for instance can replace your Microsoft Office programs.