Teachers are confused as to how myriad of new technologies can be used to support traditional teaching methods - methods which are underpinned by pedagogical theory. (or to support accepted best practice in teaching and learning)Focus has been largely on bringing new technologies into the classroom without considering new models of teaching as well as learning. Flipped classroom simultaneously addresses both teaching and learning.
There’s a massive disconnect between the way students interact with information inside and outside of the classroom. Students spend 70% of their time outside of school (including weekends and holidays) Students using technology to actively construct their own meaning and mental schemaIf 70% of time spent outside classroom – we need to use technology to address disconnect
‘New Models’ – of course they are not new. Constructivist principles 1960s…technology enables and facilitates the putting into practice many learning theories…experiential learning, constructivist learning, self-directed learning, active social learning In terms of teaching they empower teachers and free them up from imparting facts and figures to focussing on the development of higher order skills such as problem solving and critical thinking which they were trained for…It also enables them to identify students with problems so that early intervention can be provided. But with so many available technologies, how do teachers know which one to deploy and how to deploy them as part of a teaching and learning framework to enhance learning? One teaching and learning model that is currently receiving a lot of attention us the Flipped Classroom Model
Enables peer-to-peer learning through discussion, group activities
Not just open web searches with associated problems of time wasting, distraction, unsuitable content But scaffolding to ensure content is appropriate – curationContent such as Khan Academy has application for the Flipped Classroom and watching Khan Academy videos in advance of class is engaging and useful. However, this is a one-size fits-all model. What if you could provide content that was appropriate and personalised to the student’s prior knowledge… Scaffolding is optional to ensure content level is appropriate but not to undermine self-directed, constructivist nature of learning
Enables peer-to-peer learning through discussion, group activities etc.
Appropriate technology to support the flipped classroom model…
Although a lot more research is required recent studies suggest improvements in:Student engagement with subject matter- Bergmann & Sams, 2012 (10 minute chunks ideal for processing new content)Effectiveness of homework – practicing and applying with real-time feedback (Bergmann & Sams, 2012; Greenberg, Medlock, & Stephens, 2011),More effective learning - Beesley and Apthorp (2010) found that targeted, in-class (as opposed to home) opportunities for students to practice their skills with corrective teacher feedback had an effect size nearly four times that of homework, in which teachers had few opportunities to monitor students during their practice.Raising all boats through self-paced learning. Able students can accelerate learning.Much more research needs to be done but…absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Indeed, there's reason to believe that flipped classrooms may enhance student learning if they are implemented thoughtfully, with careful attention to what research tells us about good instruction.What inverted classrooms may really be flipping is not just the classroom, but the entire paradigm of teaching—away from a traditional model of teachers as imparters of knowledge and toward a model of teachers as facilitators, guides,coaches who carefully observe students, identify their learning needs, and guide them to higher levels of learning.
As a result of the technology-enhanced flipped classroom model, the role of teacherelevated to facilitating higher order learning and the development of 21st century skills. Teacher is freed up to concentrate on the fostering of 21st century skills and more available to provide individual attention to students, provide timely feedback and early learning interventions where necessary.
Learnovate Centre Microsoft Educators Summit 2013 Presentation
21st Century Learningfor 21st Century Skills
www.learnovatecentre.org‘this discovery of yours willcreate forgetfulness in thelearners’ souls … they will behearers of many things and willhave learned nothing … they willappear to be omniscient and willgenerally know nothing …’Plato ‘Phaedrus’ 370BC
21st Century Models of Teaching and LearningLynda Donovan, M.Sc., H. Dip in Ed., H. Dip. ICT in Ed.Pedagogical Lead, Learnovate Centre, TCD
www.learnovatecentre.orgDisconnectwww.learnovatecentre.orgStudents Outside Classroom• Active participants• Pulling information• Active learning• Constructivist approachStudents Inside Classroom• Passive participants• Information is pushed• Passive learning• Didactic approach
www.learnovatecentre.orgUse Technology to Bridge DisconnectEnable New Models of Teaching and Learning
www.learnovatecentre.orgFlipped Classroom ModelSchool• Teacher informs students of topic they will be covering thefollowing day and sets inquiry-based homeworkHome• Students learn basic facts BEFORE coming to class• Students actively construct their own mental schemaSchool• Students are primed for learning• Class is for consolidation• Class is for discussion• Class is for constructing shared meaning• Class is for activities
www.learnovatecentre.orgTechnology-enhanced Flipped ClassroomSchool• Teacher informs students of topic they will be covering thefollowing day and sets ‘research’ homeworkHome• Students use TECHNOLOGY to carry out research• Appropriate use of technology?School• Consolidation• Discussion• Constructing shared meaning• Activities
www.learnovatecentre.orgOur Research:Technology-enhanced Flipped ClassroomSchool• Teacher sets ‘research’ homework on volcanoesHome• Students use ALMANAC tablet application to learn basicfacts about volcanoes BEFORE coming to classSchool• Consolidation• Discussion• Constructing shared meaning• Activities
www.learnovatecentre.orgALMANAC appCreates magazine-style articles……from curated content…personalised to learners prior learning…includes mix of video, animations, text
www.learnovatecentre.orgResearchEvidence More meaningfulhomework More effective learning Improved studentengagement Accelerated learningTechnology-enhanced Flipped Classroom
www.learnovatecentre.orgEvaluationSynthesisAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledge21 Century Skills Problem solving Critical thinking Design Creativity CollaborationRole of the Teacher in the Flipped Classroom