RBM Learning Module 3 - Indicators - Draft 8

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A self-directed PPT presentation on how to choose indicators for community development projects in an RBM approach. Developed for Southern NGOs and local community leaders, but of interest to Northern NGOs who work with them. Download it to ensure that the animation works correctly.

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  • Welcome to “Results-Based Management: Working with Indicators”.
  • In this presentation, we will look at: 1. What are Indicators? 2. Examples of Indicators that have been used at the community level 3. How to create SMART ++ Indicators 4. How to ensure that indicators are useful and accessible for everyone, especially the local community members.
  • What are Indicators? Indicators tell us how well our project is working. They can describe both the activities that we’re doing, and whether we are achieving our expected results in a community project.
  • Indicators can include both Numbers that describe how much things have changed and conversations or stories that describe what the change is like and how it helped the community.
  • For example, If we we’re taking a trip, our indicators could include: the speed we’re driving at. the number of kilometers we’ve traveled The sign posts along the side of the road that announce the towns we’ve passed through Photos of the natural landmarks --- hills, mountains, rivers – we see. A story describing the highlights of our trip the speed we’re driving at. the number of kilometers we’ve traveled The sign posts along the side of the road that announce the towns we’ve passed through Photos of the natural landmarks --- hills, mountains, rivers – we see. A story describing the highlights of our trip
  • Or if we were playing football, our indicators could include: The number of goals scored A play by play commentary of a great goal The number of red and yellow cards The number of goals scored The stories of the coach and players about what the winning the game meant for them. The number of goals scored A play by play commentary of a great goal The number of red and yellow cards The number of goals scored The stories of the coach and players about what the winning the game meant for them.
  • In the next slides, we will show some examples of indicators for outputs, and immediate, intermediate and ultimate outcomes) for the following types of projects: Education Children’s Participation HIV/AIDS Water & Sanitation
  • Please note that these are only examples of indicators from other projects. You will need to develop your own indicators that make sense locally.
  • 1. Education
  • Here are some Output statements and indicator for an education project.
  • Here are some immediate outcomes statements and indicators for education projects.
  • Here are some intermediate outcomes statements and indicators for education projects
  • Here are some Impac statements and indicators for education projects
  • Now it’s your turn: In small groups, name three results of a good education project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and that the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
  • Here are some Output statements and Indicators for Children’s Participation projects.
  • Here are some immediate outcomes statements and Indicators for Children’s Participation projects.
  • Here are some intermediate outcomes statements and Indicators for Children’s Participation projects.
  • Here are an example of an ultimate outcome statements and Indicators for Children’s Participation projects.
  • Now it’s your turn: Recall, that one of the child participation immediate outcomes level results was: Enhanced capacities of girls, boys and youth to demand their right to quality, relevant education . An indicator of this immediate outcomes result could be: % of boys and girls participating in school child rights clubs or other spaces for children to meet, organize and act.
  • Perhaps other, complementary indicators could be: Level of satisfaction of girls, boys and youth with contributions of government to their education # of examples of billboards, posters and other IEC materials, produced by the government and promoting the right of children to education # of actions or events where girls, boys and youth feel they have increased the community’s understanding of quality education What other complementary indicators might community members choose?
  • In small groups, name three results of a good child participation project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and that the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
  • 3. HIV/AIDS
  • Here are some Output Statements and Indicators for HIV/AIDS projects.
  • Here are some immediate outcomes Statements and Indicators for HIV/AIDS projects.
  • Here are some ultimate outcomes Statements and Indicators for HIV/AIDS projects.
  • Recall, that one of the HIV/AIDS intermediate outcomes level results was: HIV/AIDS prevention and care and support models are adopted by relevant duty bearers An indicator of this intermediate outcomes level result could be: # of duty bearers (Gov’t, NGOs, CBOs) adopting HIV/AIDS prevention and care models
  • Perhaps other, complementary indicators could be: # of examples in the community where community members benefited from improved HIV/AIDS care models # of visits from government health staff (home care workers, nurses) to patients What other complementary indicators could there be, that may also be indicators chosen by community members?
  • Now it’s your turn again: In small groups, name three results of a good HIV / AIDS response project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and that the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
  • 4. Water and Sanitation
  • Here are some examples of Output Statements and indicators for water and sanitation projects.
  • Here are some examples of immediate outcomes statements and indicators for water and sanitation projects
  • Here are some examples of intermediate outcomes statements and indicators for water and sanitation projects
  • Here are some examples of ultimate outcomes statements and indicators for water and sanitation projects
  • Recall, that one of the Water and Sanitation intermediate outcomes level results was: Individuals in communities are able to access clean water for drinking, personal hygiene and cooking needs. An indicator of this intermediate outcomes level result could be: # of individuals in 100 communities able to access clean water for drinking, personal hygiene and cooking needs.
  • Perhaps other, complementary indicators could be: # of women and men who can say that women’s work load has been made easier Level of satisfaction among community members that water is fairly and equally accessible to all in the community What other complementary indicators might community members choose?
  • In small groups, name three results of a good water and sanitation project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
  • For our projects, we want to use indicators that will be SMART but also people-focused, user-friendly and community-empowering
  • Good indicators have 7 Characteristics. They should be: 1. Simple: Will this indicator be easy to collect? Will the information be simple to analyze? Can you collect the data at an affordable, reasonable cost? 2. Measurable: Does the indicator really measure the result? Can the indicator be measured and analyzed by different people consistently? Can the indicator be used to compare results across different communities or groups? 3. Achievable: Will this indicator help us to know whether or not the result is being achieved? 4. Relevant: Is the information from this indicator relevant for managing the project and for decision-making? 5. Time-bound: Is the indicator sensitive to change, over the life of a project? Can a baseline and a a target be established for this indicator?
  • But they should also be: 6. Participatory: Will local staff and community members (not just leaders or those more formally educated) be able to participate in the measurement of this indicator? 7. Empowering: Are local staff and communities empowered by choosing, using and reporting on this indicator? Does it allow them to celebrate change and reflect critically on this change? Then we can label these indicators as SMART++
  • Moreover, indicators should be useful to everyone, including the Community, Other Stakeholders and Donors.
  • To be useful to the community, indicators must make sense to everyone regardless of their level of formal education or literacy. Consider using graphics and pictures to represent change. For example, community members could illustrate the stages of achieving a result by drawing a picture of a tree as it grows, or a road map.
  • Or they could express change in terms of steps in food preparation. In this example, they spoke of three stages of preparing maize, with the end product being a cooked meal.
  • In Cambodia, a spider web drawing was used to indicate progress and areas that still need to be developed.
  • What other suggestions do you have for developing and tracking indicators that are SMART++… and useful to everyone??
  • We hope that these suggestions will help you in creating indicators that are SMART++ and useful for everyone. Thanks for taking part in this presentation.
  • RBM Learning Module 3 - Indicators - Draft 8

    1. 1. Results Based Management: Working with Indicators By Will Postma & Dwayne Hodgson
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>What are Indicators? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>SMART ++ Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Making Indicators Useful & Accessible </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1. What Are Indicators? Indicators tell us how well our project is working. They can describe both the activities that we’re doing, and whether we are achieving our expected results in a community project.
    4. 4. Indictors can include both… Numbers that describe how much things have changed….. Conversations or Stories that describe what the change is like and how it helped the community.
    5. 5. Example: If we were taking a trip… <ul><li>Our indicators could include… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the speed we’re driving at. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of kilometers we’ve traveled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sign posts along the side of the road that announce the towns we’ve passed through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos of the natural landmarks --- hills, mountains, rivers – we see. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A story describing the highlights of our trip </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Example: If we were playing football… <ul><li>Our indicators could include… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of goals scored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A play by play commentary of a great goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of red and yellow cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of goals scored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The stories of the coach and players about what the winning the game meant for them. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 2. Examples of Indicators <ul><li>In the next slides, we will show some examples of indicators for outputs, and immediate, intermediate and ultimate outcomes for the following types of projects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s Participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water & Sanitation </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. A Word of Caution! Please note that these are only examples of indicators from other projects. You will need to develop your own indicators that make sense locally.
    9. 9. 1. Education
    10. 10. Education Outputs Indicators Teachers trained in new methods of education # of teachers trained School supplies and uniforms provided # of children (boys & girls) who received new school supplies and uniforms School buildings repairs # of school buildings repaired Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) Mobilized # of PTA’s organized
    11. 11. Education Immediate Outcomes Indicators Primary schools have improved, safe infrastructure and/or equipment to accommodate and retain increased enrolment. # of primary schools that meet minimum standards for space, sanitation, and structure. Improved capacity of teachers to provide active and relevant learning environment for girls and boys. # of teachers and/or on inclusive teaching methodologies, participatory learning techniques, gender equality in education and child friendly school model Increased access to good quality of education. % boys and girls living within 10 km who can attend school Quality of education as assessed by supervisors
    12. 12. Education Intermediate Outcomes Indicators Increased numbers of socially excluded girls and boys who complete a full cycle of primary schooling. Annual school retention rates of socially excluded boys and girls in SCC targeted schools (versus control schools). Civil society groups and networks advocate effectively for boys’ and girls’ rights to education. # and description of advocacy actions by right to education groups and networks. Education models developed by SCC implemented by relevant duty bearers (Government, NGOs, CBOs). # of duty bearers (Gov’t, NGOs, CBOs) implementing education models developed by SCC. Education policies, laws and programs increasingly reflect gender equality and girls’ and boys’ rights to education. # and significance of changes to existing/new laws, policies, programs addressing children’s right to education.
    13. 13. Education Ultimate Outcomes Indicators Literacy in community increases % change in number of youth literacy levels for youth graduating from school (vs. baseline) The spirit and intent of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is reflected in governments’ child-related policies, regulations, programs and services. Examples from country reports to UN Committee on the Rights of the Child demonstrating increasing application of CRC articles. Level of fulfillment of the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of Children by Government. Socially excluded girls and boys realize their inherent rights. Annual increase in the percentage of the public budget assigned to the National Action Plan for Children and Adolescents 002-2011
    14. 14. <ul><li>Your Turn: Education </li></ul><ul><li>Recall, that one of the education immediate outcomes level results was: </li></ul><ul><li>Improved capacity of teachers to provide active and relevant learning environment for girls and boys </li></ul><ul><li>An indicator of this immediate outcomes result could be: </li></ul><ul><li># of teachers using inclusive teaching methodologies, participatory learning techniques, gender equality in education and child-friendly school models. </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Your Turn: Education </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps other, complementary indicators could be: </li></ul><ul><li># of students looking forward to going to school each morning </li></ul><ul><li># of parents of students sensing greater interest among students in learning </li></ul><ul><li># of students sharing stories at home about new learning during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>What other complementary indicators might community members choose? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Your Turn: Education In small groups, name three results of a good education project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and that the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
    17. 17. 2. Children’s Participation
    18. 18. Children’s Participation Outputs Indicators Children’s clubs established. # of children’s clubs established and trained on child rights issues Girls and boys trained on child rights, harmful child work, the needs of working children and the importance of education # of girls and boys trained on child rights, harmful child work, the needs of working children and the importance of education Representatives from children’s clubs participated in quarterly CCPN meetings # of children’s representatives per community participate in the quarterly CCPN meetings. Children’s clubs supported to implement action plans. # of children’s clubs that receive regular support to implement their action plan.
    19. 19. Children’s Participation Immediate outcomes Indicators Increased ability to communicate CP messages # children clubs that organize regular recreational activities (at least one activity per week) to stimulate and communicate CP messages Increased awareness of CRC amongst children # of children in targeted communities are aware of the CRC Enhanced capacities of girls, boys and youth to demand their right to quality, relevant education. % of boys and girls participating in school child rights clubs or other spaces for children to meet, organize and act. Level of understanding of boys, girls and youth of what their right to education means
    20. 20. Children’s Participation # and description of children’s rights campaigns undertaken by chidlren’s groups Intermediate outcomes Indicators Children’s groups advocate for rights to be free from exploitative child work Increased communication and interventions by children, parents, child protection agencies and communities regarding harmful child work, the nature of the violation of their rights and mechanisms to protect child workers Stories of how children, parents, child protection agencies and community members explain the importance of preventing harmful child work. Examples of where children, parents, child protection agencies and community members intervened to protect child workers Harmful child work in SCC-targeted areas reduced. # of child graduates from SCC programs returning to the worst forms of child work.
    21. 21. Children’s Participation Ultimate outcome Indicators Increased realization of inherent rights by socially-excluded girls and boys as per the spirit and intent of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). • Country reports to UN Committee on the Rights of the Child demonstrating increasing application of CRC articles. • Level of fulfillment of the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of Children by Government. • Annual increase in the percentage of the public budget assigned to the National Action Plan for Children and Adolescents 2002-2011
    22. 22. <ul><li>Your Turn: Children’s Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Recall, that one of the child participation immediate outcomes level results was: </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced capacities of girls, boys and youth to demand their right to quality, relevant education . </li></ul><ul><li>An indicator of this immediate outcome could be: </li></ul><ul><li># of child-friendly groups and spaces for children to meet, organize and act. </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Your Turn Children’s Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps other, complementary indicators could be: </li></ul><ul><li>Level of satisfaction of girls, boys and youth with contributions of government to their education </li></ul><ul><li># of examples of billboards, posters and other IEC materials, produced by the government and promoting the right of children to education </li></ul><ul><li># of actions or events where girls, boys and youth feel they have increased the community’s understanding of quality education </li></ul><ul><li>What other complementary indicators might community members choose? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Your Turn: Children’s Participation In small groups, name three results of a good child participation project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and that the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
    25. 25. 3. HIV/AIDS
    26. 26. HIV/AIDS Outputs Indicators CBOs established and strengthened to provide counseling, care and support services to children affected by HIV/AIDS. # of community based organizations established and strengthened to provide quality counseling, care and support services for children affected by HIV AIDS Children sensitized on ways to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and avoid high risk situations and behaviours # of children, including sales girls, sex workers, child workers and school children sensitized on ways to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and avoid high risk situations and behaviours Peer educators trained. # of girls and boys trained as peer educators to reach children in their communities PLWHA support groups formed. # of PLWHA support groups formed. Average size of PLWHA groups.
    27. 27. HIV/AIDS Immediate Outcomes Indicator Increased knowledge among children about ways to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and avoid high risk situations and behaviours Scores on simple verbal knowledge test re: ways to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and avoid high risk situations and behaviours Improved access to essential services for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs). # of OVCs receiving quality counseling, psycho-social support, medical care and referral services by trained partners and caregivers. # of linkages established between OVCs and health care providers. Improved perception of duty bearers on means to protect children affected by HIV/AIDS. # of government representatives and community leaders, parents, legal guardians and community leaders fulfilling their responsibilities to protect children affected by HIV/AIDS.
    28. 28. HIV/AIDS Increased and more effective advocacy for children’s right to a healthy sexuality and to be protected from HIV/AIDS. # of civil society groups/networks addressing HIV/AIDS. Examples of their effective advocacy. Intermediate Outcomes Indicators Improved social and legal frameworks, including services, to protect boys and girls affected by HIV/AIDS . # of changes to existing/new laws, policies or programs addressing children vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Adoption by relevant duty bearers of HIV/AIDS prevention and care and support models. # of duty bearers (Gov’t, NGOs, CBOs) adopting HIV/AIDS prevention and care models
    29. 29. HIV/AIDS Ultimate Outcome Indicator Reduction of HIV/AIDS in target communities. Change in % of children living with HIV/AIDS in target communities Improved quality of life for PLWHA in targeted communities. Stories of improvement in quality of life for PLWHA.
    30. 30. <ul><li>Your Turn: HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Recall, that one of the HIV/AIDS intermediate outcomes level results was: </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption by relevant duty bearers of HIV/AIDS prevention and care and support models. </li></ul><ul><li>An indicator of this intermediate outcomes level result could be: </li></ul><ul><li># of duty bearers (Gov’t, NGOs, CBOs) adopting HIV/AIDS prevention and care models </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Your Turn: HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Other complementary indicators might be: </li></ul><ul><li># of examples in the community where community members benefited from improved HIV/AIDS care models </li></ul><ul><li># of visits from government health staff (home care workers, nurses) to patients </li></ul><ul><li>What other complementary indicators could there be, that may also be indicators chosen by community members? </li></ul>
    32. 32. Your Turn: HIV/AIDS In small groups, name three results of a good HIV / AIDS response project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and that the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
    33. 33. 4. Water & Sanitation
    34. 34. Water & Sanitation Outputs Indicators Water purification packets distributed. # of water purification packets distributed # of households receiving a water purification packet Community health workers trained on necessary skills and knowledge to mobilize communities on sanitation, hygiene promotion and child protection # of CHW who complete training course and pass test of knowledge and skills. Water sources including wells and hand pumps, cleared, repaired and/or installed. # of water sources cleared, repaired and/or installed
    35. 35. Water & Sanitation Immediate Outcomes Indicators Water sources operational and maintained. # of water sources that are operational at least 80% of the time More convenient access to clean water. # of households with access of up to 20 litres / person / day of clean water within 100 metres of their house. Increased access to clean water for boys and girls in schools # schools with functioning, clean water sources Increased knowledge and skills of Community Health Workers have to mobilize communities on sanitation, hygiene promotion and child protection # of CHW who pass a basic test on necessary skills and knowledge to
    36. 36. Water & Sanitation Intermediate outcomes Indicator Increased use of clean water for cleaning, cooking, bathing and other household uses. # of people using clean water for cleaning, cooking, bathing and other uses. Water sources protected and maintained by local management committees. # of water sources protected and maintained monthly by local management committees. Citizens advocate local government to ensure their right to water. Description of advocacy efforts by citizens to ensure their right to water.
    37. 37. Water & Sanitation Children realize their right to clean water. Examples of where children realize their right to clean water. % of children in target area who can realize this right. Ultimate Outcome Indicator Improved health for families Stories that illustrate changes in quality of life as a result of provision of water and sanitation facilities.
    38. 38. <ul><li>Your Turn: Water & Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>If one of the Water and Sanitation immediate outcomes level results was: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased access to clean water for drinking, personal hygiene and cooking needs. </li></ul><ul><li>An indicator of this intermediate outcomes level result could be: </li></ul><ul><li># of individuals in 100 communities able to access clean water for drinking, personal hygiene and cooking needs. </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Your Turn: Water & Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Other complementary indicators could be: </li></ul><ul><li># of women and men who can say that women’s work load has been made easier </li></ul><ul><li>Level of satisfaction among community members that water is fairly and equally accessible to all in the community </li></ul><ul><li>What other complementary indicators might community members choose? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Your Turn: Water & Sanitation In small groups, name three results of a good water and sanitation project. For each result, name one way that you would know if the result had been achieved and the community is benefiting? Would these indicators be helpful for the community to measure, report on, learn from? Would partners, other stakeholders such as donors also find these indicators helpful in knowing the level of progress taking place?
    41. 41. For our projects, we want to use indicators that will be SMART but also people-focused, user-friendly and community-empowering 3. SMART++ Indicators
    42. 42. 7 Characteristics of a Good Indicator (Part 1) Characteristics Questions to Ask… Very Much Somewhat Little S imple Will this indicator be easy to collect? Will the information be simple to analyze? Can you collect the data at an affordable, reasonable cost? M easurable Does the indicator really measure the result? Can the indicator be measured and analyzed by different people consistently? Can the indicator be used to compare results across different communities or groups? A chievable Will this indicator help us to know whether or not the result is being achieved? R elevant Is the information from this indicator relevant for managing the project and for decision-making? T ime-bound Is the indicator sensitive to change, over the life of a project? Can a baseline and a a target be established for this indicator?
    43. 43. 7 Characteristics of a Good Indicator (continued) Characteristics Questions to Ask… Very Much Somewhat Little P articipatory Will local staff and community members (not just leaders or those more formally educated) be able to participate in the measurement of this indicator? Em p owering Are local staff and communities empowered by choosing, using and reporting on this indicator? Does it allow them to celebrate change and reflect critically on this change?
    44. 44. 4. Making Indicators Useful & Accessible Donors Other Stakeholders Community Useful to Everyone!
    45. 45. A plant growing (seed, sprout, sapling, tree) Traveling down a road (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th destination) Other local measurement examples used by other organizations:
    46. 46. Steps in the preparation of a food such as maize, with the end product being the cooked meal Other local measurement examples used by other organizations:
    47. 47. A spider web, from Cambodia, used to indicate progress and which areas still need to be developed Other local measurement examples used by other organizations:
    48. 48. What other suggestions do you have for developing and tracking indicators that are SMART++… and useful to everyone??
    49. 49. Conclusion: Proverbs from Africa <ul><li>A boat does not know who is the leader; when it turns over, everyone gets wet. </li></ul>A boat cannot go forward if each rows his own way If you wish to go fast, walk alone; if you wish to go far, walk together
    50. 50. Contact Us <ul><li>We’d love to hear your feedback and suggestions on how to improve this module. Please write us @ </li></ul>Will Postma [email_address] www.savethechildren.ca Dwayne Hodgson [email_address] www.learningcycle.ca

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