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RBM Learning Module 2 - Community Contextualization - Draft 8


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A self-directed PPT presentation that suggests ways in which you can translate and apply the key concepts of Results-Based Management at the community level. Developed for Southern NGOs and local community leaders, but also of interest to Northern NGO staff who work with them.

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RBM Learning Module 2 - Community Contextualization - Draft 8

  1. 1. In Our Own Words<br />A tool kit of participatory approaches for using RBM with a community<br />By Will Postma<br />& Dwayne Hodgson<br />
  2. 2. Welcome!<br />This toolkit suggests some participatory methods to adapt Results-Based Management approaches so that communities can participate in planning, measuring and reporting the results of their projects. <br />
  3. 3. Before we begin…<br />Let’s recall that:<br />“Results-Based Management” or “RBM” is an approach to organizing and explaining your community’s dreams… and how best to get there. RBM can sometimes seem quite complicated and intimidating….<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. RBM = Answering 6 Questions<br />What do we ultimately want to improve in our community? <br />How will we make that happen? What do we need to do in the short and medium term? <br />What problems might we encounter as we go forward? <br />How will we know if we are successful? <br />How will we make changes that may be seen as necessary? <br />How will we share the story of our project? <br />
  6. 6. RBM works best when there is a high level of community participation because: <br />Input, ownership & accountability<br />It honours the principal stakeholders<br />Good information, local knowledge, customs, power dynamics, etc.<br />Monitoring and evaluation easier and more meaningful.<br />No successful project implementation is possible in our environment without an understanding of the culture of the people… We need to refine results tools so as to adopt a bottom – up approach especially when doing project at community levels.<br />Peter Ujomu, Nigeria<br />Quoted in RBM Are We There Yet….Ever? <br />
  7. 7. Participatory Monitoring & Evaluation Cycle<br />
  8. 8. 2. Tools for Using RBM in the Community<br />Translate Key Terms<br />Use Local Metaphors<br />Problem  Solution Tree<br />Appreciative Inquiry<br />PRA Tools<br />Different Ways of Knowing<br />
  9. 9. A. Translate Key Terms<br />
  10. 10. Splash & Ripple<br />Activity<br />Output<br />Immediate Outcome<br />Intermediate Outcome<br />Ultimate Outcome<br />
  11. 11. B. Use Local Metaphors<br />RBM<br />Outputs <br />Immediate Outcomes <br />Intermediate Outcomes <br />Ultimate Outcome<br />Football<br />Kicks made<br />Passes completed<br />Goals<br />Win the Game<br />Win Tournament<br />Cricket<br />Runs scored<br />Batters out<br />Overs, Runs<br />Win the Game<br />Win the Test Match<br />Farming<br />Plants Grow<br />Plants Bear Fruit<br />Farmer Has Food<br />Plants planted<br />Weeds pulled<br />Fields watered.<br />Getting in Shape<br />Diet followed<br />Exercise program completed<br />Lose Weight,<br />Stronger Muscles, <br />Better Health<br />Live longer<br />
  12. 12. Results can grow over time, each building on another and increasing benefits to more and more people<br />Ultimate Outcome<br />Intermediate Outcomes<br />Immediate Outcomes<br />Outputs<br />Time<br />
  13. 13. The Results Chain as a River….<br />Ultimate<br />Intermediate Outcomes<br />Immediate Outcomes<br />Outputs<br />
  14. 14. Or like paths when climbing a mountain…..<br />Ultimate Outcome!<br />Intermediate<br />Intermediate<br />Immediate<br />Immediate<br />Immediate<br />Output<br />Output<br />Output<br />Output<br />Output<br />
  15. 15. C. Problem  Solution Tree<br />
  16. 16. Problem  Solution Tree<br />
  17. 17. Solution Tree  Results Chain<br />Ultimate Outcome<br />Intermediate Outcome<br />Immediate Outcome<br />Outputs<br />
  18. 18. Solution Tree  Results Chain<br />Ultimate Outcome<br />Intermediate Outcome<br />Immediate Outcome<br />Outputs<br />
  19. 19. D. Appreciative Inquiry<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22. E. Other PRA Tools<br />Participatory Rural Appraisal<br />Participatory Learning and Action<br />Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation<br />
  23. 23. A group mapping tool. <br />Using drawing materials, invite groups of 5-7 participants to draw a map of their community that illustrates key features.<br />Ask them to share their maps and compare perspectives.<br />Useful for baseline assessment, but also to identify problems and solutions, and for monitoring progress via before and after maps. <br />Community Mapping<br />
  24. 24. Transect Walks<br />As a group, take a walk across the community<br />Invite the participants to note the key features as they see them. These might include:<br /><ul><li> physical characteristics (e.g. crops, soil types, streams),
  25. 25. where people gather,
  26. 26. local institutions (e.g. schools, or religious sites). </li></ul>Draw a diagram that illustrates this cross-section ; add notes as helpful. <br />
  27. 27. Seasonal Calendar<br />Using paper and pens, create a common calendar that outlines the months and/or seasons. <br />Invite the participants to mark significant dates (e.g. holidays), events (e.g. planting, harvesting, school dates) and changes in income, work levels, food supply, etc. <br />
  28. 28. Road Journeys<br />Ultimate Outcome<br />Intermediate Outcomes<br />Outputs<br />Activity<br />Immediate Outcomes<br />Risks<br />Baseline<br />
  29. 29. Diamonds<br />Higher than average<br />Average level of income<br />Less than average<br />
  30. 30. Circles<br />Women’s loan circles<br />Village Council<br />Youth groups<br />National govt. reps<br />
  31. 31. F. Different Ways of Knowing<br />Results-Based Management: text-based & number-focused. But community members may have:<br /><ul><li> Different levels of literacy
  32. 32. More comfort with oral traditions and story-telling than reports and numbers
  33. 33. A variety of different learning styles, multiple intelligences and ways of expressing themselves. </li></li></ul><li>1. Visual<br />Use pictures, symbols, photos, drawings, etc. to illustrate concepts, and represent indicators. <br />Indicators<br />Indicators<br />
  34. 34. 1. Visual (…cont.)<br />
  35. 35. 2. Tell Stories<br />Story telling is an integral part of many cultures, <br />Collect and celebrate people’s stories<br />Be aware of bias and use good qualitative methods to analyze common themes and innovative perspectives. <br />Consider using the Most Significant Change method<br />
  36. 36. 3. Drama<br />History, analysis, dynamics, and envision possibilities<br />Before and after: act out a short play that illustrates a problem. Ask the audience to name ways they could resolve this and/or act them out. <br />Record ideas of ways to create change and describe it. <br />
  37. 37. 4. Music<br />Invite the participants to create and share songs that tell the story of the community before the project and afterwards<br />
  38. 38. 5. Kinesthetic Methods<br />Increased knowledge about maintaining the irrigation facilities.<br />Increased ability of community members to interact with and gain new knowledge from water engineers.<br /> Improved health of children.<br /> Increased availability of fish. <br />Functioning water retention dam and irrigation scheme.<br />Increased income.<br />Increased consumption of food and protein by children, women and men<br />2<br />5<br />7<br />3<br />1<br />4<br />6<br />
  39. 39. Or, to show it differently…. <br />1 Functioning water retention dam and irrigation scheme.<br />2 Increased knowledge about maintaining the irrigation facilities.<br />3 Increased availability of fish.<br />4 Increased income.<br />5 Increased ability of community members to interact with and gain new knowledge from water engineers.<br />6 Increased consumption of food and protein by children, women and men<br />7 Improved health of children.<br />
  40. 40. G. Other suggestionsStepping down the complexity of the logframeStepping into the community so that community members can more fully participate and Stepping the community contributions back up again so that donors can appreciate the work done at community level<br />
  41. 41. Ladder of Participation<br />5. Ownership / empowerment <br />4. Active participation<br />3. Willingness to share <br />2. Consultative <br />1. Passive <br />
  42. 42. Stakeholder Engagement<br />5. Community members feel that a growing sense of high and mutual benefit with stakeholders<br />4. Other stakeholders actively seek out community / community committee so as to engage with them <br />3. Community has plan by which to engage stakeholders<br />2. Stakeholder Interests Understood <br />1. Stakeholders Identified (Stakeholder Mapping)<br />
  43. 43. Risk Management<br />5. Community members feel a growing capacity to respond to risk in effective ways <br />4. Community has put a number of risk management strategies in place<br />3. Community has a Plan in place to manage and respond to risks <br />2. Risks Understood by Community <br />1. Risks Identified <br />
  44. 44. Story Telling<br />5. Most community members are very satisfied with the project <br />4. Most community members are satisfied while some are very satisfied with the project <br />3. Most community members are satisfied with the project <br />2. Some community members are satisfied with the project<br />1. Few community members are satisfied with the project<br />
  45. 45. Other Toolboxes<br />
  46. 46. Other Toolboxes (…continued)<br />
  47. 47. What would you add?<br />This presentation summarizes some of the tools and toolboxes that we’ve come across so far. <br />But we are interested in hearing what you would add to this resource.<br />What tools and approaches have you used in the community to support an RBM process?.....<br />
  48. 48. Please contact us @...<br />Will Postma<br /><br /><br />Dwayne Hodgson<br /><br /><br />