AP European History Protestant Reformation review


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Here we review the Protestant Reformation and cover its background, causes, religious beliefs, socioeconomic impact, political impact, and more

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AP European History Protestant Reformation review

  1. 1. AP European History Cram Deck 16th Century – The Protestant Reformation AP European History
  2. 2. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation General Review • A continent-wide movement to reform the decaying morality of the Church that began with the posting of the 95 Theses by Martin Luther in 1517 • Greatly polarized & strengthened religious beliefs & convictions • Northern Europe embraced Protestantism as both an ideological improvement and also to limit the influence of the Catholic Church in local issues • Wars of religion throughout the continent for 100+ years as a result • In emphasizing the individual & valued the benefits of hard work (esp. Calvinism), it helped the rise of capitalism, science, & democratic ideals • The subordination of the church to the state in many Protestant lands aided in the formation of nationalism http://www.learnerator.com AP European History
  3. 3. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation Causes • Since most were illiterate, they relied on local clergymen to translate scripture & be their connection to God. However, abuses were common and priests often set poor examples. • Important institutional problems included: • Simony. Paying for church offices instead of picking the most religiously worthy • Pluralism. Clergymen holding offices in different churches to collect more revenues • Absenteeism. Not performing religious duties due to holding multiple offices • Poor standards for priests. The standards for the priesthood were so low that many did not know the meaning of the things they recited at Mass. • Power & Wealth. Important church positions were given to the nobility and bureaucracy & most could not perform their religious duties. • Indulgences. In order to raise revenue, the Church sold indulgences, which were a way of buying your way out of purgatory and the requirement to do penance for your sins. http://www.learnerator.com AP European History
  4. 4. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation Protestant Beliefs • “Protestant” Came to mean any non-Catholic religion & Luther provided new answers for four fundamental issues: • 1) Salvation. Luther believed that salvation was achieved by faith alone regardless of what that person does to try and “force” salvation with good works, which the Church believed was also valid • 2) Religious authority. Luther believed that religious authority lay in scripture only (and not the institution of the Church) & that any religious issue needed to have a scriptural basis to be valid. For example, he claimed that indulgences had no scriptural basis, and thus were not valid. • 3) Definition of the church. Luther believed that the Church was made up of the entire population of Christians instead of just the clergy, which he called a priesthood of all believers that did not need hierarchies or institutions. • 4) Christian life. While the Church ranked religious and monastic life higher than secular life, Luther said that all endeavors had equal merit and that people should serve God in their own ways whether secular or religious. • Luther only believed in the sacraments of penance, baptism, and the Eucharist • Transubstantiation (Catholicism): during sacrament, the bread & wine become the actual body and blood of Christ • Consubstantiation (Luther): The spirit of Christ exists alongside the bread & wine, which remain the same. http://www.learnerator.com AP European History
  5. 5. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation Socioeconomic Impact • By the time of his death, Luther’s beliefs had been adopted by every level of society and appealed to peasants, educated humanists, middle class, women, and the nobility • Peasants. They believed that he advocated more freedom and economic improvements for peasants, although he condemned the German peasant revolt of 1525. • Humanists. Luther’s call for a return to simple religious life, personal faith-based piety, and the abolition of extravagance were in line with the reforms that humanists wanted • Middle class. Lutheranism’s emphasis on reading scripture appealed to their intelligence and its disapproval of the luxuries of Catholic clergy and the taxes paid by the middle class to fund them appealed their pocketbooks • Women. Luther believed that all vocations have equal merit to God and exalted the home as the domestic sphere for women. He sought to educate women and favored marriage instead of keeping women as concubines for priests • Nobility. German princes used Lutheranism as an excuse to undermine the power of the Holy Roman Emperor to decentralize power into their own principalities http://www.learnerator.com AP European History
  6. 6. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation Political Impact • When Luther launched the Reformation, it aroused patriotic & nationalistic sentiments that contemporary humanists supported & was specifically targeted against Rome. • In his Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation of 1520, Luther called on German princes to eliminate the influence of the Papacy in order to enable true reform. • He wanted to confiscate the Church’s wealth & outlaw indulgences, pardons, & celibacy. • Pointed to exploitation of German people by the Pope & appealed to German princes. • They welcomed a reason to both enrich themselves & resist the power of the Pope & the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, who wanted to consolidate German power. • This support from the German princes greatly helped the spread of Lutheranism • At the time Charles was constantly at war with France. The French, despite being largely Catholic, supported Lutheranism in Germany in order to keep Germany divided. • Thus, the Reformation was highly detrimental to German power & political unity. • Finally, the Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555 & officially recognized Lutheranism. http://www.learnerator.com AP European History
  7. 7. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation The Reformation in Eastern Europe • During the Middle Ages, central & eastern Europe became very ethnically diverse. • Protestantism here spread more along ethnic lines instead of the political & economic ones found in northwestern Europe. • In Bohemia, resentment of the Holy Roman Emperor (the Catholic Charles V) and Church corruption led to adoption of Lutheranism. • Anti-German sentiment prevented Lutheranism from taking off in Poland, which turned to Calvinism instead. • The success of Protestantism in Poland proved to be temporary due to a CounterReformation movement bolstered by support from the Jesuits. • Hungary became mostly Protestant after an Ottoman defeat in 1526, but the Turkish withdrawal & reunion with the Habsburgs in 1699 restored Catholicism. • Russia was the only major nation that remained untouched by the Reformation. http://www.learnerator.com AP European History
  8. 8. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation Comparison of Religious Orders Catholic Lutheran Anglican Calvin Leadership Pope and hierarchy No central of priests & bishops leadership King is head; priests Divinely ordained and bishops ministerial govt Clergy Only the clergy can interpret scripture Priesthood of all believers Priests can marry & Ministers, elders, believers can deacons interpret Sacraments The Seven Sacraments Communion, baptism, and Absolution Communion & baptism; no penance Communion and baptism Achievement of Salvation Faith and good works Good works come from justification; Faith and works one can repent fully Wealth is evidence of justification & good works may or may not be; predestination Church & State Pope is the leader; sovereign leaders Individuals obedient to the lawful ruler Religious org. is the state The King controls the church http://www.learnerator.com AP European History
  9. 9. 16th Century -> The Protestant Reformation Important figures • Martin Luther. The German who was founding figure of the Reformation after posting his 95 Theses in 1517 • Charles V. The Holy Roman Emperor during the Reformation who actively opposed the Reformation and often took military action • John Calvin. Founder of Calvinism and author of the highly influential work, The Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536 • John Knox. Led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland • Jan Hus. A Czech reformer & a precursor for Luther, he defeated five papal crusades • John Wycliffe. One of the earliest religious reformers in the 14th century • Thomas Cranmer. The Archbishop of Canterbury during the reign of Henry VIII and a leader of the Reformation who believed that the king was superior to the Pope • Huldrych Zwingli. Disagreed w/ Luther on the presence of Christ in the Eucharist http://www.learnerator.com AP European History