CHINA <ul><li>Eastern Asia bordering Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Beijing </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,298,847,624 (July 2004 est.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Make-up: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 1%-2%, Christian 3%-4% </li></ul><ul><li>Government: Communist state </li></ul>
<ul><li>Today there are 56 distinct recognized ethnic groups in China. [ In terms of numbers however, the pre-eminent ethnic group is the Han Chinese . Throughout history, many groups have been assimilated into neighbouring ethnicities or disappeared without a trace. At the same time, many within the Han identity have maintained distinct linguistic and regional cultural traditions. The term Zhonghua Minzu has been used to describe the notion of Chinese nationalism in general. Much of the traditional cultural identity within the community has to do with distinguishing the family name . </li></ul>
CHINESE SOCIETY & CULTURE <ul><li>The Culture of China is one of the world‘s oldest and most complex cultures 。 There are may things which make Chinese culture unique . </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese cuisine :- Large variety of Chinese cuisine comes mainly from the practice of dynastic period, when emperors would host banquets with 100 dishes per meal. </li></ul><ul><li>They still have practice to eat like </li></ul><ul><li>This .The meal is eaten with chop- </li></ul><ul><li>Sticks. </li></ul>
Chinese literature began with record keeping and divination on Oracle Bones . The extensive collection of books that have been preserved since the Zhou Dynasty demonstrate just how advanced the intellectuals were at one time. Indeed, the era of the Zhou Dynasty is often looked to as the touchstone of Chinese cultural development.Chinese literature is very rich
……………… Chinese architecture has a unique style , examples for which can be found from over 2,000 years ago, has long been a hallmark of the culture. There are certain features common to Chinese architecture, regardless of specific regions. The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BCE - 256 BCE). Some of the oldest written music dates back to Confucius 's time.
CHINESE LANGAUGES <ul><li>Chinese language is written with symbols. These symbols are called Chinese characters. Chinese characters represent the oldest writing system in the world. Chinese language is the oldest known recorded language that was written on old bones and turtle shells. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese belongs to Sino-Tibetan group of langauges </li></ul><ul><li>There are over 100,000 Chinese characters . </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese language does not have alphabets. Pinyin is a way to write Mandarin Chinese with the Roman alphabet. </li></ul><ul><li>The most difficult part when studying Chinese language is getting your tones right and learning how to read and write Chinese characters </li></ul>
… <ul><li>Mandarin is the most widely spoken form of Chinese. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese language has more native speakers than any other languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese language is mostly spoken in China, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese language (Mandarin Chinese) is one of the six official languages used by the United Nations. </li></ul>
CHINESE CHARACTER .. 汉字 <ul><li>The earliest known Chinese texts, in the Oracle bone script , display a fully developed writing system, with little difference in functionality from modern characters. It is assumed that the early stages of the development of characters were dominated by pictograms , which were the objects depicted, and ideograms , in which meaning was expressed iconically. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictograms 形字 xiàngxíngzì </li></ul><ul><li>Pictograms make up only a small portion of Chinese characters. While characters in this class derive from pictures, they have been standardized, simplified, and stylized to make them easier to write, and their derivation is therefore not always obvious. Examples include 日 rì for "sun", 月 yuè for "moon", and 木 mù for "tree". </li></ul>