Grow (larger) Structure© Jurgen Appelo   version 1.05   management30.com
A software team is a complex adaptive system (CAS), becauseit consists of parts (people) that form a system (team), and th...
An organization is a more complicated complex adaptivesystem (CAS), because it consists of systems (CAS) that consistsof p...
It’s the same with brains, bacteria, immunesystems, the Internet, countries, gardens, cities, andbeehives.They’re all comp...
The Body of Knowledge of Systems                       Complex systems theory                       is the study of comple...
Important words from complexity systems theory                         Cohesion     Uncertainty                      Emerg...
Know how to manage different systems (Cynefin)Complex                             ComplicatedProbe,                       ...
Agile managers work the system,not the people.                                  8
Communication across teamsDesign Principle 1(through a manager)Design Principle 2      <- preferred(not through a manager)...
Hierarchical layers“In the process of creating new structures and increasingcomplexity, one thing that a self-organizing s...
Scale-invariant networks (fractals)Best communication across all scales                            http://gut.bmj.com/cont...
A team size is best when between 5 +/-2,but how many other teams can one teamcommunicate with efficient, 5 +/-2?          ...
When do an organizational structure needyet another higher layer?                                      13
Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~10)          Product xx           Product xyManager               Team Alfa   Team Br...
Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~20)Manager               Team Delta   Team Charlie                                   ...
Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~40)     System “Flyer”             System “Semi-pro”                                 ...
Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~100)    System “Flyer”             System “Semi-pro”                                 ...
Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~200)                                System PortfolioSystem Portfolio                 ...
Are the project models adapted forcomplex adaptive systems, or for orderedsystems?                                      19
Can there be creativity and innovation,in a simple ordered system?                                          20
Will the customer keep buying a productwhen the distribution is in chaos?                                      21
Narrative: Project structure   Idea Chaos Act Sense Respond Novel practices                               22
Narrative: Project structure   Idea      Development Chaos       Complex Act         Probe Sense       Sense Respond     R...
Narrative: Project structure   Idea      Development   Deployment Chaos       Complex       Order Act         Probe       ...
Narrative: Project structure   Idea      Development   Deployment Chaos       Complex       Order Act         Probe       ...
Program structure      Idea              Development          Deployment                                                  ...
Maybe also project, program and portfoliomanagement structure can emerge?                                        27
If so, need managers then to be skilledin complex systems theory? Agile, lean andmultiple good practices?                 ...
Organizational debt, needs then to bere-paid.                                        29
Should management also be skilledcross-functional?                                    30
www.management30.com                       31
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Grow (larger) Structure - Johan Oskarsson - LTG-10

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  • All these systems theories together (there are many more) can be seen as the body of knowledge of systems. It is a bit ugly because the parts don’t fit together well. But it works. And we call it complexity theory when applied to complex adaptive systems.See book: page 39-40
  • Emergent properties and emergent behaviors are also unpredictable. For example, nobody can predict when a whole team will get sick from food poisoning.
  • Simple system: Carmanufactoring systemComplicated system: EnginediagnosticsComplex system: Apollo 13Chaos system: 911
  • I tell people they don’t have to remember all the fallacies. What I think is important is to have the right mindset and worldview. As managers we try to work the entire system, not individual people.
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • Fractals (from chaos theory) have the same properties at all scales.That also means the same communication overhead at all scales!That’s why organization experts aim for organizational designs following fractal principles.We aim to be able to scale our organizations without being bogged down by bureaucracy.
  • I tell people they don’t have to remember all the fallacies. What I think is important is to have the right mindset and worldview. As managers we try to work the entire system, not individual people.
  • I tell people they don’t have to remember all the fallacies. What I think is important is to have the right mindset and worldview. As managers we try to work the entire system, not individual people.
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • I tell people they don’t have to remember all the fallacies. What I think is important is to have the right mindset and worldview. As managers we try to work the entire system, not individual people.
  • I tell people they don’t have to remember all the fallacies. What I think is important is to have the right mindset and worldview. As managers we try to work the entire system, not individual people.
  • I tell people they don’t have to remember all the fallacies. What I think is important is to have the right mindset and worldview. As managers we try to work the entire system, not individual people.
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • We prefer important decisions to be made between teams (DP2) and not via a management layer (DP1).
  • Grow (larger) Structure - Johan Oskarsson - LTG-10

    1. 1. Grow (larger) Structure© Jurgen Appelo version 1.05 management30.com
    2. 2. A software team is a complex adaptive system (CAS), becauseit consists of parts (people) that form a system (team), and thesystem shows complex behavior while it keeps adapting to achanging environment. 2
    3. 3. An organization is a more complicated complex adaptivesystem (CAS), because it consists of systems (CAS) that consistsof parts (people) that form a larger system (organization), andthe system shows complex behavior while it keeps adapting to achanging environment. 3
    4. 4. It’s the same with brains, bacteria, immunesystems, the Internet, countries, gardens, cities, andbeehives.They’re all complex adaptive systems. 4
    5. 5. The Body of Knowledge of Systems Complex systems theory is the study of complex systems using multiple system theories 5
    6. 6. Important words from complexity systems theory Cohesion Uncertainty Emergence Stabilizing feedback loops Reinforcing feedback loopsSelf-organization Opposing effects per cause Multiple causes per effect Recilience Time delays between cause and effect 6
    7. 7. Know how to manage different systems (Cynefin)Complex ComplicatedProbe, Sense,Sense, Analyze,Respond RespondEmergent Disorder Good practice Not knowing where you areChaotic SimpleAct, Sense,Sense, Categorize,Respond RespondNovel Best practice 7
    8. 8. Agile managers work the system,not the people. 8
    9. 9. Communication across teamsDesign Principle 1(through a manager)Design Principle 2 <- preferred(not through a manager)(Fred Emery) 9
    10. 10. Hierarchical layers“In the process of creating new structures and increasingcomplexity, one thing that a self-organizing systems oftengenerates is hierarchy.Hierarchical systems evolve from the bottom up. Thepurpose of the upper layers of the hierarchy is to serve thepurpose of the lower layer.”(Donella Meadows, Systems thinker) 10
    11. 11. Scale-invariant networks (fractals)Best communication across all scales http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/7.cover-expansion 11
    12. 12. A team size is best when between 5 +/-2,but how many other teams can one teamcommunicate with efficient, 5 +/-2? 12
    13. 13. When do an organizational structure needyet another higher layer? 13
    14. 14. Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~10) Product xx Product xyManager Team Alfa Team Bravo 14
    15. 15. Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~20)Manager Team Delta Team Charlie Product yy Product xx Product xy Team Alfa Team Bravo 15
    16. 16. Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~40) System “Flyer” System “Semi-pro” Program BellaProgram Anna Manager Community of practice 16
    17. 17. Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~100) System “Flyer” System “Semi-pro” Systems Portfolio System “Almost pirate” System “Black flag whip” 17
    18. 18. Narrative: Emergence of a structure(~200) System PortfolioSystem Portfolio Zues Appollo 18
    19. 19. Are the project models adapted forcomplex adaptive systems, or for orderedsystems? 19
    20. 20. Can there be creativity and innovation,in a simple ordered system? 20
    21. 21. Will the customer keep buying a productwhen the distribution is in chaos? 21
    22. 22. Narrative: Project structure Idea Chaos Act Sense Respond Novel practices 22
    23. 23. Narrative: Project structure Idea Development Chaos Complex Act Probe Sense Sense Respond Respond Novel Emergent practices practices 23
    24. 24. Narrative: Project structure Idea Development Deployment Chaos Complex Order Act Probe Sense Sense Sense Analyze Respond Respond Respond Novel Emergent Good practices practices practices 24
    25. 25. Narrative: Project structure Idea Development Deployment Chaos Complex Order Act Probe Sense Sense Sense Analyze Respond Respond Respond Novel Emergent Good practices practices practices Once a while it might be good to innovate also the ordered system. 25
    26. 26. Program structure Idea Development Deployment Project Alfa Chaos Complex Order Idea Development Deployment Project Beta Chaos Complex OrderDeployment Project Charlie Order Project Delta Chaos Complex Order Project Echo Chaos Complex Order Chaos Complex Order Does the system get more complex with many concurrent projects? 26
    27. 27. Maybe also project, program and portfoliomanagement structure can emerge? 27
    28. 28. If so, need managers then to be skilledin complex systems theory? Agile, lean andmultiple good practices? 28
    29. 29. Organizational debt, needs then to bere-paid. 29
    30. 30. Should management also be skilledcross-functional? 30
    31. 31. www.management30.com 31

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