Waste identification and elmination exercise materials todd mc cann rev 23
7 WASTES 7 Original Wastes as prescribed by T. Ohno Identification and Elimination “Flight Simulator” Exercise MUDA 1 Un-Necessary Over Production 7 2 Corrections Un-Necessary Inventory 6 Un-Necessary 3Over Processing Un-Necessary Transportation 5 Un-Necessary 4 Un-Necessary Created by Todd McCann Waiting Motion A Quote from Taiichi Ohno “ Where there is NO Standard there can be NO KAIZEN” We Serve the GEMBA We Teach Leaders to “Learn to See” and “Serve the Gemba” Recognition: This exercise was created by Todd McCann of Savant and is being shared with others for the benefit of others to learn about waste identification and elimination. Out of respect for the effort and work put forward to create this exercise Please recognize prior to start of exercise
Work InstructionWASTE IDENTIFICATION Production Manager OnlyAND ELIMINATIONEXERCISEBACKGROUNDThe WasteFree Manufacturing Companybuilds personal watercraft for therecreational market.Increased competition from the Far East andCanada has squeezed margins in the lasttwo years.One of the key components which goes intothe watercraft is the lower housing support(LHS). The lower housing support isdesigned to support the impeller housing.The president of the Company, Mr. SeemoreWaste, has asked us to investigate theproduction of this component to determine if Final Assembly =there is any way cost, quality, and delivery of Lower Housing Support (LHS)this critical component can be improved.
CURRENT STATE Work Instruction Production Manager OnlyCONDITIONThe Lower Housing Support (LHS) ismanufactured in-house using a four-stepprocess: 1.Welding 2.Riveting 3.Bolt-on 4.PackingThere are four different LHS Models, alllook similar, but are, in fact, slightlydifferent. The LHS is built andtransported to next station inlots of six units and is composed of:• Three (3) cross-members, which arepurchased from a supplier• Three (3) upper struts which comepre-assembled from a supplierThe production control methodology isbased on a “PUSH” system, all parts inthe production system are delivered tothe next operation as soon as they arecomplete and without Delay.
Work Instruction Production Manager OnlyTarget ObjectiveThe target objective of this exercise is to improve the current state conditionTarget conditions for improvement could be > 5 Principles of Lean Thinking and 7 Wastes.The exercise will be allowed to run through three independent cycles to install PDCA thinkingThe first cycle will be used to establish BASELINE measurements of the current state conditionThe next two cycles will be to develop and then test and trial alternatives of improvementThe following metrics will be used to evaluate the Baseline and measure your performance.• Cycle-time • Quality• Work-in-process • Output per unit of time• Distance • Number of people• Space • Waste VisibilityA form to measure results is included in this instruction set, please see Form 2 next page, followed by aproduction workflow diagram to be used as a flight simulator layout reference guide.Each participant will receive instructions from you the Production Manager regarding their roles andresponsibilities at their assignments at each of the production system workstations.
Measurement Production ManagerEXERCISE EVALUATION/MEASUREMENT FORM 2 Production Controller Current Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Improvement Metrics Condition Test Trial Test Trial Alt 2 compared to Elements to be measured Results Baseline Baseline Results Work-in-process (# of Units) Part Travel Distance/Proximity (Steps) Cycle Time (Min) Quality Rate (# of Defective Assemblies) Space (Sq Ft) # of people (Head Count) Output per unit of time (RED LOT) (Total Units produced / Total Time) Waste visibility (Subjective)Print on E-size Banner for Final Tally + Print 2x 8.5 x 11 for use by Production Manager and Production Controller
Work Instruction Production Manager OnlyWORK FLOW for CURRENT STATE CONDITION
Work Instruction Production ControllerPRODUCTION CONTROLLERYour role is to explain the expectedproduction schedule and output and howwork flows to all operators and you will alsoexpedite parts to starved workstations asrequired.It is up to you and the Production Managerto keep the production line running.Unless you are told otherwise, the finalassembly production schedule is as follows: White 3 lots Red 1 lot Green 2 lots Black 2 lots
Work InstructionFINAL ASSEMBLY Final AssemblyOPERATOR (CUSTOMER)You operate the final assembly stationwhere the Lower Housing Support(LHS) is installed on a variety ofproducts. The final assembly line islocated at the other end of the plantand you are quite a distance awayfrom the LHS production area. Tosimulate the final assembly activity,you are to verify that the LHS hasbeen built correctly by comparing it tothe drawing to the right: DefectIf you identify a non-conformingassembly, set it aside and notify theLHS area Production Managerimmediately; if you can’t find him/heror don’t have time to locate him/her,tell the Material Handler.After you have checked eachcomponent thoroughly, furthersimulate the final assembly process bybreaking the product down into thecomponent parts.
Work Instruction Warehouse AttendantWAREHOUSE ATTENDANTAll components purchased on the outsideare received and inspected to an “AQL”specification before they are brought toyou for storage. Your job is to keep allthe work stations supplied with the partsand keep production running smoothly.Since the product is made in lots, you areto kit and stage 12 cross-members (allthe same color) at a time for WELDINGand 4 upper-strut assemblies (all thesame color) at a time for the BOLT-ONoperation.However, every third lot, will be held upfor 10 seconds for inspection by theProduction Controller. Call out to theProduction Controller when you needparts inspected.All parts will be moved from thewarehouse to production area by a The raw materials look like this.Material Handler; call for the MaterialHandler whenever you have parts readyfor transport.
Work Instruction Production Manager OnlyProduction ManagerYour job is to make sure everyone isproductive, the OPERATORS arefollowing work instruction andperforming their operations correctly,and that the production line is neveridled.Since you are the only person inauthority here, you will have toprovide all instruction to the stationoperators. At certain points in theexercise, you may need to follow thedirection of the instructor. So listen fordirectionThere is a PRODUCTIONCONTROLLER who will provide aproduction schedule and helpexpedite for you.NOTE: Defective / Non-Conformingproducts ARE NOT repairable.
Work InstructionProduction Manager Production Manager Only The finished product looks like this Your customer is the FINAL ASSEMBLY line which is at the other end of the plant. If the final assembly line is shut down, it costs the company $100,000 per hour. Note: It is also part of your job to assist the instructor in the collection of data on each of the measurements denoted on the scorecard which will be used to measure each cycle of this exercise.
BOLT ON Work InstructionBOLT-ON OperatorYour task is to bolt the upper-strutassembly to the cross-memberassembly. The colors must match.Your work should look like this:Your finished product goes to thePACKER STATION.Call the Material Handler when youneed him/her and he/she willtransport your WIP for you.
RIVET Work InstructionRIVET OperatorYour job is to rivet the remainingcross-member (of the same color)onto the two which have beenwelded. The output of your workstation should look like this:Finished parts go to the BOLT ONworkstation next.A material handler will transportWIP there for you, call for theMaterial Handler if you needhim/her.
PACKER Work InstructionPACKER OperatorYour job is to pack the partsindividually in plastic bags and sealthem shut.Call our for the Material Handler ifyou need him/her. The MaterialHandler will transport materials tothe FINAL ASSEMBLY area for you.You are also responsible forINSPECTING the finished LHSunits.If you find any Non-Conformingparts, immediately. notify theProduction ManagerA completed unit should look likethis:
WELDER Work InstructionWELDER OperatorYour job is to weld two of thecross-members together; theymust be of the same color.The parts should be welded toform the shape to the right.Your work goes to the RIVEToperation next. The MaterialHandler will transport your WIPfor you.Call out for the Material Handlerif you need his/her assistance.
MATERIAL HANDLER Work InstructionMATERIAL HANDLERYour job is to move parts from oneworkstation to the next, includingdelivery of raw materials from thewarehouse to the work stations andthe delivery of finished product to thefinal assembly line.All transportation of material is yourresponsibility. No-one else canmove/transport materials except you.RULE: Each lot is 6 six units. Youcan only move complete lots. Youcan carry, at most, 3 three lots at atime and they must be in a plasticbin provided to you from thewarehouse.
WorkstationIdentification Standard PlacardsActionPrint in Color and Place at Work Stations
PlacardWAREHOUSE Quality Sampling Standard:Remember every third lot, will be held up 10 seconds for inspection Place on workstation table
FORM FORM 1 FINAL ASSEMBLY PRODUCTION SCHEDULE White 3 lots Red 1 lot Green 2 lots Black 2 lots 1 LOT = 6 Final AssembliesIf you desire, please print and post for students to See
FORMFORM 2EXERCISE EVALUATION/MEASUREMENT SCORECARD Current Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Improvement Elements to be measured Condition Test Trial Test Trial Alt 2 compared to (UOM) Results Baseline Baseline Results Work-in-process (# of Units) Part Travel Distance/Proximity (Steps) Cycle Time (Min) Quality Rate (# of Defective Assemblies) Space (Sq Ft) # of people (Head Count) 9 Output per unit of time (RED LOT Sample) (Total Units produced / Total Time) Hard to See Harder to See Harder to See Waste visibility (Subjective) Easy to See Easier to See Easier to See Print on E-size Banner for Final Tally + Print on 8.5 x 11 for use by Production Manager and Production Controller
Form 3 FORM FINAL ASSEMBLY QUALITY Non-Conforming Material Measurement UOM = Count Final Assembly Quality # of Non-Conforming # of Non-Conforming # of Non-Conforming Assemblies Assemblies AssembliesColor Current Condition 1st Alternative 2nd Alternative Test and Trial Test and TrialWHITE18 pcs RED 6 pcsGREEN12 pcsBLACK12 pcs Print 8.5 x 11 for use by Final Assembly Operator, place at work station
Instructors GuideWaste Identification and Elimination Exercise Purpose: Educate and establish new knowledge and new capability in the students to “See Waste” and Measure Waste by challenging the students to work together to identify, reduce and eliminate 7 Wastes present in the exercise. Most importantly build “KAIZEN Spirit” and “Challenge Spirit”! If the Student has not learned, the Teacher has not taught!
Waste Identification and Elimination Exercise Bill of MaterialsLego “Duplos” (LARGE LEGO’s if you can locate a source are advised > SMALL LEGO’s will work as well)50 pcs > RED (2x4 connector)50 pcs > RED (2x2 connector)50 pcs BLACK (2x2 connector)50 pcs BLACK (2x4 connector)50 pcs GREEN (2x2 connector)50 pcs GREEN (2x4 connector)50 pcs WHITE (2x2 connector)50 pcs WHTE (2x4 connector) Prior to Start of Exercise Pre-Assemble “Upper Struts” > Pre-Stage Upper Strut Sub-Assemblies @ Warehouse Upper Strut Subassembly Material Requirements are: 18 pcs > WHITE Upper Strut Sub-Assembly 6 pcs > RED 12 pcs > GREEN 12 pcs BLACK
Waste Identification and Elimination Exercise Bill of Materials 1 Instruction Deck for Production Manager (Slides 1-15 of this deck) 15 plastic containers (Pre-Stage in Warehouse) Measurement Production Manager 1 Box of Medium Sized Zip-Lock Baggies EXERCISE EVALUATION/MEASUREMENT FORM 2 Production Controller Current Alternative 2 Improvement Metrics Alternative 1 Condition Alt 2 Test Trial Test Trial Elements to be measured compared to Baseline Results Results Baseline Work-in-process (# of Units) Distance/Proximity (Steps) 1 E-Size Exercise Measurement (Form 1) Pre-Stage by hanging on Wall. Alt > Hand Write scorecard on White Board Cycle Time (Min) Quality Rate (# of Defective Assemblies) Space (Sq Ft) # of people (Head Count) Output per unit of time (RED LOT) 1 calculator (if required) (Total Units produced / Total Time) Waste visibility (Subjective) 3 stop watches 1>One for Assistant 1 to measure Total Time of Exercise 1>One for Production Controller to Measure RED LOT cycle time 1>One for Assistant 2 to measure RED LOT production as backup to Production Controller’s measurement activity Form 3 FORM FINAL ASSEMBLY QUALITY Non-Conforming Material Measurement UOM = Count Final Assembly Quality # of Non-Conforming # of Non-Conforming # of Non-Conforming Assemblies Assemblies Assemblies Color Current Condition 1st Alternative 2nd Alternative Test and Trial Test and TrialWHITE 18 pcs RED 6 pcs 1 Flip chart (use during team improvement dialogueGREEN 12 pcsBLACK 12 pcs 3 Markers for use during alternative development 1 Quality Rate Scorecard for Final Assembly 6 Tables: 1 for each workstation and Warehouse 6 ID Placards one for each work station and Warehouse
Waste Identification and Elimination ExerciseNumber of Participants:1 Instructor2 Assistants in training to become instructors9 Students / Participants 1. Production Manager 2. Production Controller 3. Material Handler 4. Warehouse Attendant 5. Welding Operator 6. Rivet Operator 7, Bolt On Operator 8. Final Assembly Operator 9. Packer Operator
Waste Identification and Elimination ExerciseExercise Layout: Room selection is key.Pick as large a room as possible.Alternative: Conduct exercise offsite at a hotel at a conference center. The bigger the better.Your intentions are to have people travel un-necessarily and to deliberately cause and create 3MMuda, Mura, and Muri from the ensuing chaos and confusion!Locate the Warehouse as far away from the workstations as geographically possible.If possible, locate warehouse outside of the room where the exercise is being conducted.Review the assembly sequence of operations (see diagram) and intentionally locate workstations togenerate the greatest distance between them as possible based on the room size, create the worstcase spaghetti diagram you can!Place PLACARDS for each workstation and Warehouse on corresponding tableLocate baggies, Lego’s, bins , pre-assembled upper strutsand Bins on the Warehouse Table. No materials should be located at workstations.Locate Non-Conforming Material Scorecard at FinalAssembly table PlacardHang Exercise Evaluation/Measurement Tally sheet on wall in room. E-size Print. WAREHOUSE Quality Sampling Standard: Remember every third lot, will be held up 10 seconds for inspectionYou can also print out the Production schedule in E-Size print and hang on wall if you so desire. Place on workstation table Form 3 FORM Measurement Production Manager FINAL ASSEMBLY QUALITY EXERCISE EVALUATION/MEASUREMENT FORM 2 Production Controller Non-Conforming Material Measurement UOM = Count Current Alternative 2 Improvement Metrics Alternative 1 Condition Alt 2 Test Trial Final Assembly Quality Elements to be measured Baseline Results Test Trial Results compared to Baseline # of Non-Conforming # of Non-Conforming # of Non-Conforming Assemblies Assemblies Assemblies Work-in-process (# of Units) Color Current Condition 1st Alternative 2nd Alternative Test and Trial Test and Trial Distance/Proximity (Steps) WHITE Cycle Time (Min) 18 pcs Quality Rate RED (# of Defective Assemblies) 6 pcs Space (Sq Ft) GREEN # of people (Head Count) 12 pcs Output per unit of time (RED LOT) BLACK (Total Units produced / Total Time) 12 pcs Waste visibility (Subjective)
Waste Identification and Elimination Exercise Instructor and Assistants Preparation Standard Work InstructionsPrior to Exercise:Who: Instructor and 2 Assistants Set up the exercise and rehearse the exercise 2x with your assistants Read the Production Managers instruction deck several times and thoroughly understand all of details as shallow as they are! You and your assistants should be able to complete all workstation activities and teach them to others “You DO NOT want to make up rules during exercise” BE PREPARED Become intimately aware of all of the requirements of the exercise Choreograph your activities and those of your assistants in the exercise (KATA’s) Create hand written notes when you begin to question yourself and reflect > your delivery patter and your movements (KATA’s) and the corresponding exercise roles and responsibilities should be crystal clear. Become proficient in all aspects of the exercise. Thoroughness is key, build capability to perform exercise Learn by Doing. Remember you are the instructor it is your duty to create new knowledge and capability in your students Never let your students FAIL to Learn Learn how to use the stop watch and be able to instruct others in the use of the stop watch. You and your assistants will need to be able to properly use the stop watch during specific elements of measurement during exercise Special Note: One of the assistants will be required to use stop watch to measure time of RED LOT production. The Production Controller is on point to perform the measurement activity, but may be become overwhelmed and forget to measure RED LOT production during exercise, therefore backup will be required. The assistants measurement of RED LOT production time is performed without the knowledge of the students. When you and your assistants have established the confidence to perform exercise through demonstrated proficiency and new competency then schedule date and formally prepare for delivery of exercise. Once you have layout complete and before you start the exercise perform the following measurements. Measure work area using UOM=Sq Ft approximations only. Precision is not necessary >fill calc in Form 2 “Space” Step off distances between work stations and Total, fill in Form 2 “Part Travel Distance/Proximity UOM=Steps
Exercise Kick-Off Short Interval TrainingLearning by Doing is the focus and aim of the exerciseDepending on the level of “Lean Thinking Capability” present in the students I would advocate that short interval training shouldtake place prior to start of the exercise.Duration: 30 minutes maximum, shallow instruction, but instruction non-the-less.Just enough to poke the minds of the students.Personally I use a E-Size print outs hung on wall for teaching..NO POWER POINT allowed > High Touch, No Tech Low tech learning environment.Let your conscious be your guide as to the method you select for teachingHere are some subjects that I would suggest: (see next 3 slides as examples)Discuss the 5 Principles of Lean ThinkingDiscuss KAIZEN spiritDiscuss Closed Loop Thinking PDCA > SDCADiscuss the 7 Original WastesDiscuss 3M Muda Mura and MuriDiscuss Standard WorkDiscuss Standard Work SheetsDiscuss 3Gen > Genchi > Genbutsu > GenjitsuYou may choose other topics to teach.Keep short interval training “out of the weeds”When you have completed the exercise return to the topic and content you chose to teach and reflect with the students on HOWthe short interval training you instructed ties to the exercise. Use examples from the exercise as the basis of creating the tie.
Start Exercise with Short Interval Training (30 minutes) 2 Topics > 5 Principles + Seven Wastes Discuss each Principle and Each of the Original Seven Wastes Tie Exercise to Both Topics5 Principles of Lean: Seven Original Wastes:VALUE - What the customer is willingto pay for Unnecessary T ransportationVALUE STREAM - All the required Unnecessary I nventorysteps to produce and deliver a product Unnecessary M otionor service Unnecessary W aitingFLOW - A product moving through thevalue stream with no stoppages, scrap Unnecessary O ver-productionor rework Unnecessary O ver-processingPULL - producing and delivering only D efectswhen the downstream customersignals a need The Eighth Waste is:PERFECTION - completely eliminating Not using People’s Intellectwaste so that all activities createvalue
3M’s – One Point LessonType I: 無駄 MUDA = NON-VALUE ADDED ACTIVITY Any Activity that is wasteful and doesnt add value or is unproductiveType II: 斑 or ムラ MURA = INCONSISTENCY Condition of unevenness, inconsistency in physical matter or human spiritual condition – Absence of Balance - VariabilityType III: 無理 MURI = UNREASONABLENESS Condition of overburden, unreasonableness or absurdity Inflexibility
Value Stream – One Point Lesson Created by: Todd McCann VALUE STREAM - All the required steps to produce and deliver a product or service. Also known as “Material and Information” flowsValue Stream Mapping is a tool that allows individuals to: Visualize end to end FLOW of MATERIAL and INFORMATION to create a product Primary Objective > Expose and quantify stagnant inventory that is not FLOWING Quantify all VALUE added and NON VALUE added activities in the Value Stream Identify constraints and process bottlenecks prohibiting FLOW in the Value Stream Determine areas in need of improvement to increase FLOW in the Value Stream, create PULL where you can Set improvement goals and easily identify the correct process improvement indicators in the Value Stream Use as “The Blue Print” to enable continuous improvement behaviors Enables the creation of standard work in the Value Stream • Deliver exactly what the customer wants • One at a Time • On Demand • Free of Defects • Respond Immediately to Problems • Increase Value by focusing on continuous elimination of waste in pursuit of Perfection! CURRENT State Condition IDEAL State Condition