Leanne Cameron, IRC/ELI Service Learning Presentation 2013


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Presentation from Leanne Cameron's 2013 Presentation at the CATESOL Statewide Conference. All images used with permission of organizations/individuals. All rights reserved.

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Leanne Cameron, IRC/ELI Service Learning Presentation 2013

  1. 1. Socially Responsible Citizens: ! Service-Learning as a Language Learning Motivator Leanne Cameron, M.A.
  2. 2. Presentation Overview •  Introduc)on  to  Program   •  Interna)onal  Rescue   Commi5ee  in  Sacramento   •  English  Language  Ins)tute   &  Service  Learning   •  Review  of  Past  Research   •  Research  Project   •  Discussion  of  Results   •  Applica)on  &  Discussion    
  3. 3. International Rescue Committee           www.rescue.org     Nonsectarian,  non-­‐profit  US-­‐based  NGO   Founded  at  the  request  of  Albert  Einstein  to  support  the   refugees  fleeing  the  Third  Reich  in  the  1930s     Interna/onal  work  (44  countries):  disaster  relief,   educa)on,  rights  advocacy:  women,  vic)ms,  and  human   rights,  etc.   Domes/c  work  (22  US  ci)es):  refugee  rese5lement     Logo  and  informa,on  used  by  permission      
  4. 4. Refugee Resettlement o   Refugee  status  &  op)ons  available   o   14  million  worldwide   o   2010:  203,000  need  rese5lement   (UNHCR);  only  80,000  places  existed,   72,914  were  placed     Matching  Grant  Program:  6  months  of  support  through   a  rese5lement  agency     Job  placement     Apartment,  schools,  transporta)on     English  language  instruc)on      
  5. 5. IRC in Sacramento         Volunteer-­‐run  ESL   Program  started  in  2011   Twice  a  week:  1.5  hours   with  an  ESL  instructor,   1.5  hours  of  tutoring   Challenge  #1:  Volunteer   reten)on       Challenge  #2:  Training   volunteers  to  work  with   very  low-­‐level  speakers    
  6. 6. English Language Institute •  Intensive  English  Program  at  Sacramento  State,   primarily  interna)onal  F-­‐1  students   •  Eight  week  sessions,  five  sessions/year     •  Eight  levels  from  literacy  to  low-­‐advanced,  pre-­‐university   •  •  Popula/ons:  Korean,  Saudi  Arabian,  Chinese,  Taiwanese,   various  other  groups   Current  popula/on  approx.  175  
  7. 7.  10-­‐15  hours  required   as  a  part  of  Level  6/7   Listening  &  Speaking      Reflec)on  through   two  presenta/ons   and  on-­‐going   discussion     Service Learning & ELI
  8. 8. Service Learning “Service-­‐learning  is  a  form  of  experimental  educa)on   in  which  students  engage  in  ac/vi/es  that  address   human  and  community  needs  together  with   structured  opportuni)es  inten)onally  designed  to   promote  student  learning  and  development.”   Jacoby,  1996,  p.  5  
  9. 9. ELI Tutors at IRC       52  ELI  students  have  served   as  tutors  since  August  2011   All  completed  a  minimum  of   four  tutoring  sessions  (1.5   hours  each)   Also  hosted  short-­‐term   groups  as  tutors  (Korean   university  students  and   Hubert  H.  Humphrey   Fellows)  
  10. 10. "Community  service...can  be  a  transforming  experience.   Many  students,  growing  up  in  middle  class  homes  in   suburban  neighborhoods,  have  had  li5le  to  do  with  the   world  revealed  to  them  when  they  embark  on  programs   taking  them  into  social-­‐service  organiza)ons,  hospitals,  and   inner-­‐city  schools,  and  they  can  derive  deep  sa/sfac/on   from  combining  their  own  studies  with  the  well-­‐being  of   their  communi)es.     They  can  also  learn  new  ways  of  looking  at  the  world,  and   through  the  formal  language  learning  process,  share  their   experiences  with  others."              (Tonkin  et  al,  2004,  p.  5)   Service-Learning
  11. 11. Service-Learning Advantages Concrete  Advantages     Hands-­‐on  skill  building:  develops  “the  ability  to   synthesize  informa)on,  crea)ve  problem  solving,   construc)ve  teamwork,  effec)ve  communica)on,  well-­‐ reasoned  decision  making,  and  nego)a)on  and   compromise”  (Jacoby,  1996,  p.  20)       Resume  building:  Work  within  the  field  can  be  listed   along  with    coursework  to  demonstrate  real-­‐world   experience      
  12. 12. Service-Learning Advantages Abstract  Advantages     Interpersonal  skills:  “develop  students'  apprecia)on  of   human  differences  and  commonali)es  and  to  teach   individuals  to  live  peacefully  and  produc)vely  in   communi)es”       Global  ci/zenship:  “helps  par)cipants  develop  a  deeper   understanding  of  the  issues,  as  well  as  how  values  and   norms  are  socially  constructed  and  the  causes  of  social   injus)ce”  (Jacoby,  2004,  p.  22)    
  13. 13. ESL & Service-Learning Research       Visible  gap  in  the  research   Gap  #1:  Primarily  anecdotal  (Russell,  2007)     Applica)on  of  service-­‐learning  as  an  opportunity  that   "allows  students  to  address  complex  problems  in   complex  semngs"  (p.  771)   Gap  #2:  Exis)ng  research  presents  situa)ons  that  don’t   involve  direct  contact  between  ELLs  and  target   popula)on  
  14. 14. Connection to Motivation       Gardener  &  Lambert  (1972):  Instrumental  vs.  integra)ve   mo)va)on   Dornyei’s  (2005,  2009)  L2  Mo)va)onal  Self  System     “Future”  or  Possible  selves:  what  one  might  become,   what  he/she  wants  to  become,  and  is  afraid  to   become     Norton  (2002):  Investment     Learners  are  “constantly  organizing  and  reorganizing  a   sense  of  who  they  are  and  how  they  relate  to  the   social  world”  and  this  L2  iden)ty  “is  constantly   changing  over  )me  and  space”  (p.11)  
  15. 15. Research Questions  What  abstract  or  concrete  results  did  par)cipants   report  based  on  the  experience?        In  what  ways,  if  any,  did  these  results  appear  to   relate  to  language  learning  mo/va/on?     •  Applica'on:  What  factors  of  the  experience  can  be   recreated  in  different  contexts  for  similar  results?     • 
  16. 16. Population & Methodology         45  tutors  contacted;  did  their   service  between  August  2011   and  January  2013   36  were  my  past  students     Contacted  by  email  with   Survey  Monkey  page   Results  reported  as   anonymous       Open  February-­‐April  2013     57%  response  rate  (n  =  26)  
  17. 17. Survey Questions   Likert  Ques/ons  [4]     5  point  scale     Measured  for  mean  and  standard  devia)on  then   plo5ed     Open-­‐Ended  Ques/ons  [4]     Analyzed  through  the  constant  compara,ve  model   (Glaser  &  Strauss,  1967)     Coded  and  combined  into  11  foci  to  comment  on  the   perceived  value/lack  of  value  in  the  experience      
  18. 18. Demographics (n =26) Saudi  Arabia  (11)     South  Korea  (9)     Taiwan  (2)     China  (2)     Iran  (1)     Albania  (1)     Male  (14)     Female  (12)     Average  age  of  21     No  past  volunteer   work  (8)     Past  volunteer  work   in  US  or  abroad  (18)    
  19. 19. Length of Service at IRC
  20. 20. Question #1   1.  "Overall,  volunteering  at  IRC  was  a  posi)ve   experience  for  me.”       Mean:  4.5  (n  =  26,  SD  =  1.1)  
  21. 21. 2.  "Volunteering  at  IRC   mo)vated  me  to  work   hard  at  learning  English.”   Mean  (n  =  26,  SD  =  1.2)   3.  "Volunteering  at  IRC   improved  my  own   understanding  of  English.”   Mean  (n  =  26,  SD  =  1.2)   4.  "Volunteering  at  IRC   improved  my  perspec)ve   on  learning  English.”                        Mean  (n  =  26,  SD  =  1.2)   Questions #2-4
  22. 22. Impacted  thinking  about  value  of  English   Impacted  self-­‐expression  or  confidence   General  comments  on  experience   Impacted  personal  "inspira)on"   Impacted  reason  to  improve  English   Lacked  change  or  results   Impacted  social  awareness  or  perspec)ve   Developed  skills  or  abili)es   Impacted  thinking  about  learning   Impacted  personal  English  learning   0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Open-Ended Response Foci
  23. 23. Concrete Results: Language Focused  on  the  results  of  their  own  language  use   (including  remembering,  prac)cing,  or  learning)   and  improving  or  refreshing  their  English  skills     Men)oned  by  all  26  respondents         Connec/on  to  Jacoby  (2004)     Hands-­‐on  skill  building     Resume  building    
  24. 24. Concrete Focus: Personal English
  25. 25. Concrete Results: Skills
  26. 26. Abstract Results: Perspective Focused  on  internal  change  in  perspec/ve:  change   in  beliefs,  mo)va)onal  factors,  ability  to  cri)cally   analyze  a  situa)on,  while  helping  refugees  claim   this  as  well.           Connec/on  to  Jacoby  (2004)       Interpersonal  skills     Global  ci)zenship    
  27. 27. Abstract Results: Confidence
  28. 28. Abstract Results: Global Citizenship
  29. 29. “They  are  constantly  organizing  and   reorganizing  a  sense  of  who  they  are  and  how   they  relate  to  the  social  world.  Thus,  an   investment  in  the  target  language  is  also  an   investment  in  a  learner’s  own  social  iden/ty,   an  iden)ty  which  is  constantly  changing   across  )me  and  space.”            (Norton,  2000,  p.  18)  
  30. 30. Limitations       Posi/ve  bias  within   respondents  (more  likely  to   respond  to  the  survey  request)   Researcher  bias  as  instructor   and  IRC  ESL  Program   Coordinator   Limita/ons  of  using  the  Likert   scale  (i.e.    
  31. 31. Application for Different Contexts Research  Ques/on  for  Applica/on   What  factor  of  the  experience  can  be  recreated   in  different  contexts  for  similar  results?    My  answer:  INTERACTION  allows  for          investment        
  32. 32. Interaction: Requires English Usage     “Before  I  did  it,  English   was  just  one  way  to  get   good  grade.  However,  I   realized  English  is  the  way   to  communicate  with   each  other.”     “Teaching  or  transferring   the  informa)on  I  have  to   someone  else  improves   my  own  understanding  of   the  thing.”  
  33. 33. Interaction: Confidence   “Since  I  am  not  a  na)ve  speaker,  I  considered   myself  as  a  small  person  in  the  US.  The  people   who  I  met  grew  me  up  internally.  They  needed  me   and  there  was  something  I  could  help  them  with   my  English  skills  even  though  my  English  was  not   perfect…  Now  I  can  show  my  opinion  by  speaking  a   second  language.  The  immigrants  always  showed   me  their  respecta)on  and  it  made  me  so  much   proud  of  myself.”    
  34. 34. Interaction: Investment in the “Other”     “I  felt  the  li5le  effort  I  put   made  someone’s  life  a   li5le  bit  easier.”   “It  was  my  first  )me  to   meet  refugees.  I  had  scary   image  of  them…  But   through  this  experience,  it   was  totally  changed.  They   were  just  common   people.”    
  35. 35. Get Involved!       Learn  more  about  the  IRC  at  www.rescue.org.   Join  TESOL’s  Refugee  Concerns  Interest  Sec)on  for  ongoing   news  about  refugees  &  English:  h5p://tesol.org/connect/ interest-­‐sec/ons/refugee-­‐concerns   Contact  me  at  Leanne.Cameron@rescue.org.    
  36. 36. References       Dörnyei,  Z.  (2005).  The  psychology  of  the  language  learner:  Individual  differences  in  second   language  acquisi)on.  Mahwah,  NJ:  Lawrence  Erlbaum.   Gardner,  R.C.,  &  Lambert,  E.E.  (1972).  A?tudes  and  mo,va,on  in  second  language  learning.   Rowley,  MA:  Newbury.       IRC  at  a  Glance.  Interna)onal  Rescue  Commi5ee.  (2013).  Rescue  and  refugee  support.   Interna,onal  Rescue  CommiDee  (IRC).  Retrieved  from  h5p://www.rescue.org/irc-­‐at-­‐a-­‐glance       Jacoby,  B.  (1996).  Service  learning  in  higher  educa,on.  San  Francisco:  Jossey-­‐Bass  Publishers       Norton,  B.  (2000).  Iden,ty  and  language  learning.  Harlow,  England:  Longman  Pearson.             Norton  Piece,  B.  (1995).  Social  iden)ty,  investment,  and  language  learning.  TESOL  Quarterly,   29(1),  p.  9-­‐31.     Number  of  refugees  at  an  all-­‐)me  high  (2013).  EuroNews.  Retrieved  from  h5p:// www.euronews.com/2013/06/19/world-­‐refugee-­‐day/     Russell,  N.  (2007).  More  than  teaching:  Connec,ng  ESL  students  to  their  community  through   service  learning.  Phi  Delta  Kappan:  June.     Tonkin,  H.  (Ed).  (2004).  Service-­‐learning  across  cultures:  Promise  and  achievement.  Portland,   OR:  Interna)onal  Partnership  for  Service-­‐Learning  and  Leadership.