Laura Mulvey (1975) – „The Male Gaze‟ That the dominant view point in the cinema is male, so the audiences have to view the characters from a heterosexual male point of view. So the female body must be displayed for the male gaze in order to provide „erotic pleasure‟ (voyeurism). This is to reinforce womens stature as objects, and ultimately a the mans sense of control and over her. This could be used when writing about music videos and the use of good looking women, or going against the convention to focus on the female gaze. "the cinema satisfies a primordial wish for pleasurable looking.” Laura Mulvey – Voyeurism Abercrombie argues that now there are these positive changes more aparted than in soaps, where minority ethnics are treated in a far less stereotypical way than in the past as ordinary people rather than exotic and dangerous others.„Men were portrayed as authority figures, workers breadwinners and sportsmen.Men outnumbered women by three to one on television. While women suffered. “Symbolic annihilation by the media “through absence, condemnation or trivialisation.‟
Judith Butler – looked at the extent to which gender and sexuality were performative, meaning if „male and females‟ follow the gender appropriate behaviour, which was constructed by the culture in our society - culturally constructed. Butler argues that we behave as individuals, performing individual acts, and these acts are not dependent on our biological gender. Rather than creating our gender based on our biological sex, we have created an idea of what is biological from the gender we have constructed. This can be used as an example when discuss the props you used in a music video and if they were gender stereotypical, or describing if the behaviour of your character or artist suited the cultural constructed norms shown in society. „Gender is what you do, not what you are‟ – Judith Butler
Angela McRobbie- Argued that adolescent girls magazines like „Jackie‟ constructed an ideology of „romantic individualism‟ in which influences girls to think that their main quest in life is to find a loving relationship. This theory could be applied to romantic comedies or even love songs in music videos, or it can be challenged by music videos which go against this convention. “a kind of false sisterhood that assumes a common definition of womanhood or girlhood” - Angela McRobbie
David Gauntlett- Focuses on the developments in recent pop culture and the development of „girl power‟, and how pop culture has influenced a different representation in women who are now considered in society to become determined, do their own thing, and to have their own sexual identity.“Identities are not „given‟ but are constructed and negotiated.” - David GauntlettThis could be used when referring to the characters in your music video and if they promote a certain image of women.
Is a set of ideas based around the idea that identities are not fixed and do not determine who we are. The queer theory builds both upon feminist arguments and the idea that gender is part of the essential self, it also focuses on the „Natural‟ and „Unnatural‟ behaviour in respect of homosexual behaviour and „queer behaviour‟. So for example if a character in a film is not acting to the appropriate behaviour, created by society for his/her gender then that character falls into the category of being homosexual. According to Dyer (2002) representation of male homosexuality in the media have tended to be dominated by camp characters- effeminate, mincing men with high voices- who make fun of the serious and respectable. Although such character may have a slightly subversive role, they are also a safe form of sexual stereotype, unchallenging to traditional masculinity. Although such characters may have a slightly sub verse role, they are also a safe form of sexual stereotype, unchallenging to traditional masculinity.
This theory focuses on the function of women/women characters in particular narratives or genres and if the fit the stereotype of societies view of women. With this theory, Laura Mulvey, is important to bring in Laura Mulvey as she is a feminist sociologist who focused on womens representation in the cinema. Ann Kaplan- argues women can possess the look and make men the object of the gaze. (Backs up Mulvey) “Female characters can possess the look and even make the male character the object of her gaze, but being a women, her desire has no power”
Dick Hebdidge- Focused on that subculture. He suggests that subcultures do not inherit characteristic of urban life but defined by style and influenced by socioeconomic factors. Meaning that the social life of these subcultures develop from the absence from institutions such as the nuclear family, or the chaos that existed in the 1970‟s which discrimination towards the black community. For example her argues that punk emerged as a mainly white style when Black youth became more separatist in the 1970s in response to discrimination in British society. •Van Djiks argued that the British media Angela Barry in „Black Mythologies‟ constantly flatters it‟s readers with the Representation of Black people in British Television reports that when black people are statements like “The British are kind portrayed they are depicted as trouble makers, and tolerant people” always followed by dependants or sports figures. the racist „but‟ then the minority ethnics are accused of abusing our Stuart Hall showed how the media presented mugging as a black crime. hospitality, being social security scroungers, criminals and terrorist sympathizers .
Edward Said focused on Orientalism and perceived that there were false assumptions underlying Western attitudes towards the East. Orientalism: is a collection of biases created by the west . The oriental : A vague generalization or stereotype of the east which is used in many countries and areas around the world. Latent Orientalism: Peoples opinion as to what the orient is, that it is separate from „us‟ different and inferior. He believed that this has occurred because the east is fundamentally different to the West this was seen as a weakness and was what allowed the west to colonies.
Cultural theorist focuses on the influencing racial thinking in the UK. Hall states that the representation of the black community has been through two phases.1. The first was a challenge of the racist stereotype and producing a positive black identity. – Relation to Reggae music.2. In the second phase, the how black community is being represented in society. – Riots, Criminality – Urban Films, Music, GangsHall was concerned with media power, and how it was representingissues for public concern. "The mass media play a crucial role in defining the problems and issues of public concern. They are the main channels of public discourse in our segregated society". - Stuart Hall