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Narrative theory


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Narrative theory

  1. 1. Todorov Theory  Todorov in 1969 produced a theory, which he believed to be able to be applied to any film. He believed that all films followed the same narrative pattern. They all went through stages called equilibrium, disequilibrium, acknowledgment, solving and equilibrium.  There are five stages the of the narrative process:  A state of equilibrium  A disruption of that order by an event  A recognition that the disorder has occurred  An attempt to repair the damage of the disruption  A return or restoration of a NEW equilibrium
  2. 2. How it links to our work  “In the western, the gangster and the detective films, disruption is always figured literally- as physical force” (quote)  Todorov’s five stages of narrative link to our music video, since at first there is a state of equilibrium when they are just walking and nothing happens, a disruption happens when they all began running and start chasing the person on his own. A recognition of the disruption is the fight, an attempt to fix the disruption is when he runs again trying to escape and the return of restoration is when he gets caught and becomes one of the people chasing him.
  3. 3. Vladimir Propp  Vladimir Propp is known for the character theory, he states that every narrative has eighty different character types, these types are:  The Villain – Fights the hero in someway.  The Dispatcher – Makes the villains evil known and sends the hero off.  The Helper – Helps the hero on the quest.  The Princess/Prize – What the hero gets in the end of the quest.  The Donor – Gives the hero an object that is useful for their quest.  The Hero – The main protagonist of the story.  False Hero – Falsely assuming the heroes role.  The Father – Looks after the princess/prize.
  4. 4. How it links to our work  "Functions of character serve as stable, constant elements in a tale, independent of how and by whom they are fulfilled. They constitute the fundamental components of a tale” (quote)  The number of functions known to a fairy tale is limited. Our music video has limited character type for example a hero/ damsel in distress which can be seen as the black guy running and the villains which are the people in the masks.
  5. 5. Claude Levi-Strauss  Binary Opposites Young vs Old  Good vs Evil Man vs Nature  Black vs White Protagonist vs Antagonist  Boy vs Girl Action vs Inaction  Peace vs War Motivator vs Observer  Civilized vs Savage Empowered vs Victim  Democracy vs Dictatorship Man vs Woman  First World vs Third World Good Looking vs Ugly  Domestic vs Foreign/Alien Strong vs Weak  Articulate vs Inarticulate East vs West  Decisive vs Indecisive Humanity vs Technology  Ignorance vs Wisdom Middle class vs Working Class Claude Levi Strauss said that narratives are formed around binary opposites. Conflict is based around binary opposites and binary opposites are the climax of a narrative structure.
  6. 6. How it links to our work  “That all narratives had to be driven forward by conflict that was caused by a series of opposing forces” (quote)  The binary opposites that we have in our music video is a group of people vs one. There is also an opposite if everyone wearing masks and the person not wearing a mask. Finally there is an unintentional one where it is one race vs another.
  7. 7. Roland Barthes  Hermeneutic/Enigma Code – This code refers to a mystery in a text. Hints are dropped throughout the narrative. Having enigmas in this try makes the audience wants to find out more.  Proairtec/Action Code – This code contains sequential elements of action in the text, proairtec adds suspense to the story.  Semantic Code – This code refers to parts within the text that suggests another meaning.  Symbolic Code – This code is about symbolism within text. It exercises opposites to show contrast and create greater meaning, creating tension, drama and character development.  Referential Code – This code refers to anything in the text which refers to an external body of knowledge such as scientific, historical and cultural knowledge. There are five narrative codes in Barthes's Theory which are:
  8. 8. How it links to our work  Roland Barthes Theory links to our work, for example by the enigma code as in our music video we see this person running from this group of masked people, therefore it is mystery due to the fact we don’t know why he is running.  The action code can be linked due to the person running and not understanding why and the fight scene when he gets caught which adds the suspense as we don’t know what's going to happen when he gets caught until it happens.  Semiotic code links to our music video where you have one guy that is black guy running from white people which could suggest a white supremacist ideology, which can also link to Levi Strauss theory of binary opposites (black vs white). This can also lead to symbolic code where it creates a greater meaning.  Referential code can be linked to our music video as in current culture everyone rejects what they aren't apart of for example nerds culture rejects jock culture where as in our music video its white culture rejecting/ changing black culture to match white culture.