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NARRATIVE It is important to tell the difference between narrative and story Story = a sequence of events, known correctly...
TVZETAN TODOROV <ul><li>In everything we seek a beginning a middle and a end. Todorov, a Bulgarian theorist created this n...
VLADIMIR PROPP  <ul><li>Vladimir Propp’s 7 character actions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Villain - struggles against the hero. ...
CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS <ul><li>Binary Opposition </li></ul><ul><li>A  binary opposition  is a pair of opposites, thought by t...
ROLAND BARTHES <ul><li>Suggested that narrative works with five different codes which activate the reader to make sense of...
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Kirstie and lauren, narrative

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Kirstie and lauren, narrative

  1. 1. NARRATIVE It is important to tell the difference between narrative and story Story = a sequence of events, known correctly as the plot Narrative = the way those events are put together to be presented to an audience.
  2. 2. TVZETAN TODOROV <ul><li>In everything we seek a beginning a middle and a end. Todorov, a Bulgarian theorist created this narrative theory in 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium Disequilibrium New equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>A state of equilibrium (all is as it should be.) </li></ul><ul><li>A Disruption of that order by an event. </li></ul><ul><li>A recognition that the disorder has occurred . </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to repair the damage of the disruption </li></ul><ul><li>A return or restoration of a NEW equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>He suggest most narratives start with a state of equilibrium in which life is “normal” and the characters are happy </li></ul><ul><li>“ normal” life is disrupted by an outside force, which has to be fought against in order to return to “normal” life again. </li></ul>
  3. 3. VLADIMIR PROPP <ul><li>Vladimir Propp’s 7 character actions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Villain - struggles against the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>The donor – Prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object. </li></ul><ul><li>The dispatcher – Character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off. </li></ul><ul><li>The (magical) helper- helps the hero in the quest. </li></ul><ul><li>The princess or prize – the hero deserves her throughout the story but is unable to marry her because of an unfair evil, usually because of the villain, the hero’s journey is often ended when he marries the princess, thereby beating the villain. </li></ul><ul><li>Her father- gives the task to the hero, identifies the false hero, marries the hero, often sought for during the narrative. Propp noted that functionally, the princess and the father can not be clearly distinguished. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero – reacts to the donor, marries the princess. </li></ul><ul><li>False hero- takes credit for the hero’s actions or tries to marry the princess. </li></ul>
  4. 4. CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS <ul><li>Binary Opposition </li></ul><ul><li>A binary opposition is a pair of opposites, thought by the Structuralists to powerfully form and organize human thought and culture. Some are commonsense, such as raw vs cooked; however, many such oppositions imply or are used in such a way that privileges one of the terms of the opposition, creating a hierarchy. This can be seen in English with white and black, where black is used as a sign of darkness, danger, evil, etc., and white as purity, goodness, and so on. Another example of a contested binary opposition is rational vs emotional, in which the rational term is usually privileged and associated with men, while emotional is inferior and associated with women. The list goes on. Deconstruction sometimes involves identifying the oppositions working in a text and then demonstrating how the text itself undermines the hierarchy implied or asserted by the opposition. </li></ul>
  5. 5. ROLAND BARTHES <ul><li>Suggested that narrative works with five different codes which activate the reader to make sense of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Barthes’ Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Action – a narrative device by which a resolution is produced through action, e.g. a shoot-out. </li></ul><ul><li>Enigma – a narrative device that teases the audience by presenting a puzzle or riddle to be solved. Works to delay the story’s ending pleasurably. </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic – (connotation) </li></ul><ul><li>Semic – (denotation) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural – a narrative device which the audience can recognise as being part of a culture e.g. a “made man” in a gangster film is part of the mafia culture. </li></ul>

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