The hypodermic needle theory is the idea that media is like a syringe that injects beliefs, ideas, and attitudes into the audience. In some cases this theory worksResearch has shown thatwatching violent crimescan make you violent. However…. People are affected in different ways by the media, therefore cannot be ‘injected’ with any specific idea, belief or attitude. Audiences are also now aware of the media’s attempts to ‘inject’ ideas into them.For example: watching PowerRangers causes playground fights.
According to the Uses and Gratification Theory we all use the media differently and make our own choices over what we want to watch.We all expect something from the use ofour media. These are the things we doexpect:InformationSatisfying our curiosity. Finding out iPieabout the world and society.Personal identityFinding models of behaviour. Findingreinforcement for personal valuesIntegration and social interactionIdentifying with others, which gives us asense of belonging.EntertainmentFilling time. Relaxing.Escaping from problems
The two step theory shows that we are more likely to be affected by the media if we discuss it with others.Our own opinions are affectedby how our friends haveviewed the media.An opinion leader is one whoas viewed a piece of mediaand then shares theirinterpretation of it withothers (opinion receivers)
According to Stuart Hall, audiences can have three different reactions to a media text: Preferred reading: how the director wants the audience to view the media text. Negotiable reading: when the audience rejects the preferred reading, and creates their own meaning of the it. Oppositional: where the audience accepts parts of the implied views, but also has their own views on parts as well. - Hall views the audience as both consumers and producers of texts : as in the consumer negotiates the meaning and what is perceived through what they are seeing.(Encoding and Decoding) Stuart Halls theory used the Mirror stage function to explain how we used contemporary media(social networks) such as Facebook to re-present and reproduce ourselves the way we want to be seen. (Making us both producer – consumer.) - Stuart also suggests that consumers of media they see what they want to see.
Blulmer and Katz theory is based on individualsreasons on why they become audiences. They goon to look at ‘what people do with media’ insteadof ‘what the media does to people’. Going on tostate that the audience are not passive but takeand active role in what they take into their lives,meaning that audience are in control of what theyview. They came to find that individuals moved towards certain forms of media because of; Diversion - escape from everyday problems and routine. Personal Relationships - using the media for emotional, substituting soap operas for family life Personal Identity - finding yourself reflected in texts, learning behaviour and values from texts Surveillance - Technical information I.e. weather reports, financial news