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Tense Review


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Tense Review

  1. 1. Western UniversitySchool of Arts, Humanities, and Languages Core English III, I Tense Review 1
  2. 2. Present Simple• Positive I/We/You/They + V + obj. He/She/It + V-s + obj. V-es V-ies E.g. 1. I work in a bank. 2. Sokkheng stays in a flat in Phnom Penh. 3. Dara goes to school everyday. 4. Paint dries quicker in summer.• Negative I/We/You/They + don’t + inf.V (no to)… E.g. I don’t go to school today. He/She/It + doesn’t + inf.V (no to)… E.g. He doesn’t do homework. 2
  3. 3. Present Simple (Cont)• Question 1. Do/Does + sub + inf. V (without to)…? Yes, sub+do/does. No, sub + don’t/doesn’t. E.g. 1. A: Do you know him? B: No, I don’t. 2. A: Does Vandy come to school today? B: Yes, he does. 2. Wh-question + do/does + sub + inf.V (no to)...? E.g. Where do they stay? Who does Sophal love? 3
  4. 4. The Use of Present Simple• Present habit/repeated actions and eventsE.g. She usually gets up at 6 am.• Permanent states/situations and factE.g. 1. I work in a bank in Phnom Penh. 2. Thida has 3 sisters and 2 brothers.• Things which always happenE.g. 1. Water boils at 100°C. 2. The sun rises in the east.• A fact about future events (timetable/calendar)E.g. 1. The president arrives at midday tomorrow. 2. Flight 765 leaves at 5pm. 3. Tomorrow is Sunday. 4
  5. 5. ‘To be’ in Present Simple• Positive I am He/ She/It is +N + obj. We/ You/They are + Adj E.g. 1. We are students. 2. Bopha is beautiful.• Negative I am not/’m not He/She/It is not/ isn’t + N + obj. We/You/They are not/aren’t +Adj E.g. 1. I’m not a doctor. 2. He isn’t handsome. 5
  6. 6. ‘To be’ in Present Simple (Cont)• Question 1. Am/Is/Are + sub + Adj/N? Yes, sub + am/is/are. No, sub + am not/is not/are not. E.g. Are you at home? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. 2. Wh-question + am/is/are + sub + N/Adj? E.g. A: Who is she? B: Her name is Pam Woods. 6
  7. 7. The use of ‘to be’For any state• Age: I’m 22. How old are you?• Description: Jim is tall and dark. How tall is Jim?• Height: She is 1 meter 60. You are not taller than me.• Weight: Soklin is 49 Kilos. How heavy is this parcel?• Feelings: We are tired and hungry.• Distance: The town is about 5 kilometers away.• Size: The room is small.• Price: How much are these shoes?• Time: What time is it now?• There is/There are: Is there a post office near here? There are few girls in this class. 7
  8. 8. Present Continuous• Positive: Sub + am/is/are + V-ing… E.g. I am learning Core English.• Negative: Sub + am not/isn’t/aren’t + V-ing… E.g. He isn’t reading newspaper.• Question: 1. Am/Is/Are + sub + V-ing…? Yes, sub + am/is/are. No, sub + am not/isn’t/aren’t. E.g. Are you watching TV. Yes, I am. No, I’m not.• Wh-question + am/is/are + sub + V-ing…? E.g. What are you doing here? 8
  9. 9. The Use of Present Continuous• An activity that is happening now/Progress actionE.g. Don’t turn the TV off. I’m watching it.• An activity or situation that is true now, but is not necessarily happening at the moment of speakingE.g. 1. I am studying at the weekend this semester. 2. I am quite busy these days. I’m doing manyassignments.• a temporary activityE.g. Dany is staying with her friends until she finds aplace of her own.• only with action verbs or short action verbs 9
  10. 10. Past Simple• Positive: Sub + V2 + obj. E.g. Ann phoned us yesterday.• Negative: Sub + didn’t + inf. V… E.g. Susan didn’t like cold weather.• Question: Did + sub + inf. V…? Yes, sub + did. No, sub + didn’t. E.g. Did Ben go to the beach? Yes, he did. No, he didn’t. Wh-question + did + sub + inf. V …? E.g. What did you see? 10
  11. 11. The Use of Past Simple• Past situation/habitE.g. When I was at primary school, I went to schoolevery morning.• Action was completely finished in the past.E.g. 1. Did you see Seiha 1 minute ago? 2. I worked in SiemReap in 2008.• Sequent event in the story.E.g. Mary walked into the room and stopped. Shelistened carefully. She heard a noise coming frombehind the curtain. She threw the curtain open, andthen she saw… 11
  12. 12. ‘To be’ in Past Simple• Positive I/He/ She/It was +N + obj. We/ You/They were + Adj• Negative I/He/She/It wasn’t + N + obj. We/You/They weren’t +Adj• Question 1. Was/were + sub + Adj/N? 2. Wh-question + was/were + sub + N/Adj?Age, Description, Height, Weight, Feelings, Distance,Size, Price, Time, There was/There were.E.g. 1. What time was your lesson yesterday? 2. We were sad that you weren’t at the party. 12
  13. 13. Past Continuous• Positive: Sub + was/were + V-ing… E.g. The baby was crying all night.• Negative: Sub + wasn’t/weren’t + V-ing... E.g. They were playing tennis at 10am.• Question: Was/Were + sub + V-ing …? Yes, sub + was/were. No, sub + wasn’t/weren’t. E.g. Was she reading book? Yes, she was. No, she wasn’t. Wh-question + was/were + sub + V-ing…? E.g. What was he doing yesterday this time? 13
  14. 14. The Use of Past Continuous• An activity was progressing in the pastE.g. At 7 o’clock this morning, I was having my breakfast.• For descriptionsE.g. Jan was very beautiful. She was wearing a green cotton dress and high heels. While she was walking, many guys appreciated her…• An interrupted past activity (both Past Simple &Past Continuous)E.g. 1. While we were playing tennis, it started to rain. 2. When the phone rang, I was having a shower. 14
  15. 15. The Use of Past Continuous (Cont)• Incomplete activity in the past in order to contrast with Past Simple that expresses a completed activity.E.g. 1. I was reading a book during the flight. (I didn’t finish) 2. I read a book during the flight. (I finished reading the whole book) 15
  16. 16. Present Perfect Simple• Positive: I/We/You/They + have + V3… He/She/It + has + V3…• Negative: I/We/You/They + haven’t + V3… He/She/It + hasn’t + V3…• Question: 1. Have + sub + V3 …? Has + sub + V3 …? Yes, sub + have/has. No, sub + haven’t/hasn’t. 2.Wh-question have + sub + V3 …? Wh-question has + sub + V3 …? 16
  17. 17. The Use of Present Perfect Simple• Unfinished action (it began in the past and still continues)E.g. 1. I’ve forgotten her name.(= I can’t remember it now) 2. They have been married for 25 years.• Unfinished action (For: shows how long sth has continued. Since shows when sth started)E.g. 1. Karen has been a nurse for 15 years. 2. Karen has been a nurse since 1996.• ExperienceE.g. She has written poetry and biographies.• Ever & never (things have happened in a period of time that started in the past and continue to the present)E.g. 1. Have you ever been to Australia? 2. He has never given me flowers. 17
  18. 18. The Use of Present Perfect Simple (Cont)• With ‘just’ (short time ago)E.g. 1. We’ve just come back from our holiday. 2. I’ve just had an idea.• With ‘already’(sth has happened sooner than expected)E.g. 1. A: Don’t forget to post the letter for me! B: I’ve already posted it. 2. A: When is Tom going to start his new job? B: He has already started.• With ‘yet’ (Speaker is expecting sth to happen); it is used only with question and negative forms E.g. 1. Has it stopped raining yet? 2. I haven’t told them about the accident yet. 18
  19. 19. The Use of Present Perfect Simple (Cont)• Indefinite timeE.g. The new sports shop has opened.• How much/ How manyE.g.1. A: How many CD has Rachel played? B: At least 20 CDs. 2. How much money have you had?• How long (sth has happened up to the present)E.g. A: How long have Tom and Ann known eachother? B: They have known each other since they wereat school. 19
  20. 20. Present Perfect Continuous• Positive: I/We/You/They + have been + V-ing… He/She/It + has been + V-ing…• Negative: I/We/You/They + haven’t been + V-ing… He/She/It + hasn’t been + V-ing…• Question: 1. Have + sub + been + V-ing …? Has + sub + been + V-ing …? Yes, sub + have/has. No, sub + haven’t/hasn’t. 2. Wh-question have + sub+ been + V-ing …? Wh-question has + sub + been + V-ing …? 20
  21. 21. The Use of Present Perfect Continuous• Unfinished action (similar to Present Perfect Simple)E.g. I have played tennis since I was young Or I have been playing tennis since I was young.• Present result with evidence left recentlyE.g.1. I’m covered in mud because I’ve been gardening. 2. Have you been crying? (your eyes are red)• How long, for, since, all day, all morning/afternoon/evening/night, all week, recently and lately, in the last few days/weeksE.g. Rachel has been playing music all day. I have been ironing shirts since 6 o’clock. How long have you been learning to drive? He hasn’t been feeling very well recently. What have you been doing lately? 21
  22. 22. Past Perfect• Positive: Sub + had + V3…• Negative: Sub + hadn’t + V3…• Question: 1. Had + sub + V3 …? Yes, sub + had. No, sub + hadn’t. 2. Wh-question had + sub + V3 …? Wh-question has + sub + V3 …?• For a past event before another past event. Use it to show the time connection between two events.E.g. 1. The rain had just stopped. So we decided to go our for a walk. 2. When I got to the party, Peter had gone home. 22
  23. 23. Past Perfect (Cont)3. When I got home, I found that someone had brokeninto my house and had stolen my laptop.• Past Perfect Continuous is used for an action which happened over a period of time.E.g. 1. Vicky felt tired because he had been working allday. 2. When the company went bankrupt, it had beenlosing money for months. 3. A young man was struck by lightning, he hadbeen standing under a tree.(strike → struck → struck) 23
  24. 24. Future ‘Will’• Positive: Sub + will + inf.V (no to)…• Negative: Sub + won’t + inf.V (no to)…• Question: 1. Will + sub + inf.V (no to)…? 2. Wh-question+ will + sub + inf.V (no to)…?• Decision/intention made at the moment of speakingEg.1. I’ve left the window open. I’ll go back and close it. 2. Jeff, there’s someone at the door!’ Ok, I will get it.• To offer, willingness, promise or threaten to do sthE.g. 1. That looks heavy. I’ll help you. 2. I promise I won’t be late. 3. Our love will last forever. 4. Marry me; otherwise, I’ll kill you. 24
  25. 25. Future ‘Will’ (Cont)• To ask sb to do sth and to agree or refuse to do itE.g. 1. Will you shut the door, please? 2. Will you please be quiet? I’m trying to concentrate. 3. A: Will you post this card for me? B: Yes, I will post it on my way home. 4. I’ve just asked John to help me but he won’t.• Prediction (base on an opinion than a fact) 1. I believe that the inflation will fall to 3% next year. 2. I think Laura will do very well in her exams. 3. Rachel will probably be late. 25
  26. 26. Future ‘going to’• Positive: I am We/You/They are + going to + inf.V… He/She/It is• Negative: I am not We/You/They aren’t + going to + inf.V… He/She/It isn’t• Question: 1. Am/Is/Are + sub + going to + inf.V…? Yes, sub + am/is/are. No, sub + am not/isn’t/aren’t. 2. Wh-question + am/is/are + sub + going to + inf.V…? In informal speech ‘gonna’ = ‘going to’ 26
  27. 27. The Use of Future ‘going to’• A future plan/decision/intension made before the moment of speakingE.g. 1. When I grow up, I am going to be a doctor. 2. Jane and Peter are going to get married afterthey have graduated.• A prediction, especially when it is based on a present fact. The evidence now that is certain to happen.E.g. 1. She is going to have a baby. (We see she’s pregnant) 2. Liverpool is going to win the match. (It’s four-nil and there is only 5mns left) 27
  28. 28. Present Continuous for the Future• A future arrangement between people, it usually refers to the near futureE.g. 1. I’m having my hair cut tomorrow. 2. Are you seeing the doctor next Tuesday?• Think of the things you put in your diary to remind you of what you are doing over the next few days and weeksE.g. 1. I’m meeting Peter tonight. 2. We’re catching the train next week at 10h00. 3. We’re going to the party on Saturday night. 28
  29. 29. Future Continuous• Positive: Sub + will + be + V-ing…• Negative: Sub + won’t + be + V-ing…• Question: 1. Will + sub + be + V-ing…? Yes, sub + will. No, sub + won’t. 2. Wh-question + will + sub + be + V-ing…?• To say that we will be in the middle of doing sth at a certain time in the futureE.g. 1. Tomorrow at 7 am, Sokkheng will be having breakfast. 2. This time next week I’ll be on holiday. I’ll probably be lying on a beautiful beach. 29
  30. 30. Future Continuous (Cont)• For an action which will happen during a process of events because it is part of a plan or part of a schedule of future eventsE.g. 1. The party will be starting at ten o’clock. 2. The ship will be sailing soon.• To ask about people’s plans, especially when we want sth or want sb to do sth.E.g. 1. A: Will you be using your bicycle this evening? B: No, you can take it. 2. A: Will you be passing the post office when you go out? B: Yes, why? 30
  31. 31. Future Continuous (Cont)• Future Continuous = will = present continuousE.g. The visitors will be arriving later. are already = The visitors will arrive later. planned = The visitors are arriving later. or decidedCompare these sentences At 10 am yesterday he was working. It’s 10 am now. He is working. At 10 am tomorrow he will be working. 31
  32. 32. Future Perfect• Positive: Sub + will + have + V3…• Negative: Sub + won’t + have + V3…• Question: 1. Will + sub + have + V3…? Yes, sub + will. No, sub + won’t. 2. Wh-question + will + sub + have + V3…?• To say that sth will already have happened before a certain time in the future/sth will be over in the futureE.g. 1. Tom’s football match ends at 9h15. So after thistime, for example at 9h30, the match will havefinished. 32
  33. 33. Future Perfect (Cont)2. Next year is Ted and Amy’s 25th weddinganniversary. They will have been married for 25 years. (Now they have been married for 24 years)3. We’re late. I think the film will already have startedby the time we get to the cinema.(the film will already have started before we arrive)• Before/by (positive), not… until/till (negative)E.g. 1. The new manager will have started work before/by 1st May. 2. The new manager won’t have met all the staffs until/till 30th May. 33
  34. 34. Future in the Past• ‘Was/were going to’ for a past intention or arrangement and Past Continuous for the planE.g. 1. Mr. Dudley was going to retire, but then hefound another job. 2. We were going to watch the film, but we forgot about it. 3. I was in hurry because I was catching a plane that afternoon.• ‘Would/wouldn’t’ past form of ‘will/won’t’E.g.1. At midnight Sarah was still working. She would be tired the next day. 2. Ann promised that she wouldn’t be late. 3. Vandy said that he would lend me some money. 34
  35. 35. Future in the Past (Cont)• ‘Would’ When you look back on the past and remember things that often happenedE.g. 1. When we were children, we lived by the sea. In summer, if the weather was fine, we would get up early and go for a swim. 2. Whenever Dara was angry, he would walk out of the room.• ‘Would not’ for past unwillingness, a refusalE.g. 1. The spokesman wouldn’t answer any questions. 2. The car wouldn’t start this morning. 35
  36. 36. Passive• Sub + am/is/are + V3… (Present Simple Passive)E.g. 1. Bopha is loved by a man who is her co-worker. 2. Two people are killed in the house.• Sub + was/were + V3… (Past Simple Passive)E.g. 1. The drugs were found by the police. 2. Teav Ek was written by Santhormok.• Sub + am/is/are +being+V3…(Present Continuous Passive)E.g. 1. This room is being cleaned at the moment. 2. Look at those old houses. They are being knocked down.(are being fallen to the ground) 36
  37. 37. Passive (Cont)• Sub + was/were+being+V3..(Past Continuous Passive) E.g. 1. Suddenly I heard foot steps behind me. We were being followed. 2. A man was being questioned by detectives last night.• Sub + have/has + been + V3… (Present Perfect Simple Passive)E.g. 1. Have you heard the news? The president has been shot. 2. I’m not going to the party. I haven’t been invited. 37
  38. 38. Passive (Cont)• Sub + had + been + V3… (Past Perfect Passive)E.g. 1. Jim didn’t know about the change of plans. He hadn’t been told. 2. Vandy’s room looked much better. It had been cleaned.• Sub + will + be + V3… (Future ‘will’ Passive)E.g. 1. The drugs will be destroyed. 2. The bread will be baked next.Sub + am/is/are + going to + be + V3… (Future ‘going to’Passive)E.g. 1. The men are going to be charged with importing cocaine. 38
  39. 39. Passive (Cont)E.g. 2. The match is going to be played.• Sub + will + have + been + V3… (Future Perfect Passive)E.g. Everything will have been checked before November.• Sub + would + be + V3… (Future in the Past Passive) 39
  40. 40. References• Eastwood, J. (1999). Oxford practice grammar (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Eastwood, J. (1994). Oxford guide to English grammar (1st ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Macfarlane, M. (2008). English practice grammar. Britain: Garnet Publishing Ltd.• Murphy, R. (1985). English grammar in use (1st ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.• Soars, L. & J. (1998). New headway (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.• Soars, L. & J. (2003). New new headway (3rd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.40