Telecommunication

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Telecommunication

  1. 1. 8 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS c h a p t e r
  2. 2. SYSTEM COMPONENTS <ul><li>COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>TERMINALS: Input / output devices </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESSORS: Modems, multiplexers, front-end processors </li></ul><ul><li>COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  3. 3. ANALOG SIGNAL <ul><li>CONTINUOUS WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>PASSES THRU SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE COMMUNICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>© 2002 by Prentice Hall
  4. 4. DIGITAL SIGNAL <ul><li>DISCRETE WAVEFORM </li></ul><ul><li>TWO DISCRETE STATES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-BIT & 0-BIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ON / OFF PULSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DATA COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>USES MODEM TO TRANSLATE ANALOG TO DIGITAL, DIGITAL TO ANALOG </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>0010111010011101001010101110111100100010000101111010110100111010010010110010101101100
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS <ul><li>MEANS BY WHICH DATA ARE TRANSMITTED: </li></ul><ul><li>TWISTED WIRES: Copper Wires </li></ul><ul><li>COAXIAL CABLE: Insulated Copper Wires </li></ul><ul><li>FIBER-OPTIC CABLE </li></ul><ul><li>MICROWAVE </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>© 2002 by Prentice Hall
  6. 6. <ul><li>SUPER CLEAR GLASS STRANDS </li></ul><ul><li>FAST, LIGHT, DURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>TRILLIONS OF BITS PER SECOND, FULL DUPLEX </li></ul><ul><li>EXPENSIVE, HARDER TO INSTALL </li></ul><ul><li>OFTEN USED AS BACKBONE OF NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS SIGNAL LASER CABLE PHOTO DETECTOR SIGNAL
  7. 7. <ul><li>BACKBONE: Fiber optics cable carries light signals to distribution nodes, which use copper wires to user </li></ul><ul><li>DENSE WAVE DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (DWDM): Next-generation, uses many colors, (up to 160) each a channel, increases capacity of a fiber to 6.4 terabits per second </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS
  8. 8. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PAGERS: Small pager beeps when receives short message </li></ul><ul><li>CELLULAR TELEPHONE: Device uses radio waves to reach antennas within areas called cells </li></ul><ul><li>MOBILE DATA NETWORKS: Radio - based data network using hand-held computers, cheap, efficient </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  9. 9. WIRELESS TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SERVICE: Cellular; lower power; higher frequency. Smaller phones not shielded by buildings, tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT: Pen sized, hand-held, digital communicator </li></ul><ul><li>SMART PHONE: Wireless, voice, text, Internet </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  10. 10. ORBITING SATELLITES UPLINK MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION DOWNLINK
  11. 11. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES STAR HOST USER USER USER USER
  12. 12. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES BUS USER USER USER USER USER USER
  13. 13. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES RING USER USER USER USER
  14. 14. LOCAL NETWORKS <ul><li>PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE (PBX): firm’s central switching system </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN): dedicated channels; limited distance (less than 2000 foot radius); higher capacity than PBX. Can share expensive hardware & software </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  15. 15. LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) <ul><li>GATEWAY: Connection to other networks </li></ul><ul><li>ROUTER: Forwards data to other networks </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM (NOS): Manages file server; routes communications on network </li></ul><ul><li>PEER - TO - PEER: In some small networks all computers have equal power </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Network spans large geographic distances. Can include cable, satellite, microwave </li></ul><ul><li>SWITCHED LINES: Route determined by current traffic </li></ul><ul><li>DEDICATED LINES: Constantly available for high-volume traffic </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>WIDE - AREA NETWORK (WAN)
  17. 17. E-COMMERCE & E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>ELECTRONIC MAIL (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPWARE </li></ul><ul><li>VOICE MAIL </li></ul><ul><li>FACSIMILE MACHINES (fax) </li></ul><ul><li>TELECONFERENCING </li></ul><ul><li>DATACONFERENCING </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEOCONFERENCING </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  18. 18. E-COMMERCE & E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>DIGITAL INFORMATION SERVICES: Commercial service provides desired mix </li></ul><ul><li>DISTANCE LEARNING: Education, training delivered over a distance, can include printed material, teleconferencing, interactive multimedia, Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>
  19. 19. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) <ul><li>COMPUTER - TO - COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>EXCHANGE BETWEEN TWO ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>OF STANDARD BUSINESS TRANSACTION DOCUMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul>COMPUTER COMPUTER SELLER CUSTOMER ORDERS, PAYMENTS SHIPPING NOTICES, PRICE UPDATES, INVOICES
  20. 20. Report by: Lea Lynn D. Halos BSIE-COMED 3F “ To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. ” T H A N K Y O U !!!

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