Resilience in urban socioecological
     systems: residential water
    management as a driver of
            biodiversity...
Natural
Environment
Natural
Environment




                 Individual responses
              Behavior, Physiology, Life History
Regional/Global

                      Ecosystem

  Natural            Community
Environment
                      Populat...
Regional/Global

                      Ecosystem

  Natural            Community                     Human
Environment    ...
A coupled socioecological system (SES)


                  Actions
               interventions




Human System          ...
Unpacking the black box of
    “human impact”
Unpacking the black box of
        “human impact”
•   Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and
    indirectly), e.g...
Unpacking the black box of
        “human impact”
•   Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and
    indirectly), e.g...
Unpacking the black box of
        “human impact”
•   Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and
    indirectly), e.g...
Unpacking the black box of
        “human impact”
•   Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and
    indirectly), e.g...
Unpacking the black box of
        “human impact”
•   Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and
    indirectly), e.g...
Unpacking the black box of
        “human impact”
•   Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and
    indirectly), e.g...
Unpacking the black box of
        “human impact”
•   Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and
    indirectly), e.g...
Residential water use in Fresno
Residential water use in Fresno
•   Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
Residential water use in Fresno
•   Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
•   70% of residential water used for ir...
Residential water use in Fresno
•   Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
•   70% of residential water used for ir...
Residential water use in Fresno
•   Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
•   70% of residential water used for ir...
Residential water use in Fresno
•   Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
•   70% of residential water used for ir...
Residential water use in Fresno
•   Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
•   70% of residential water used for ir...
Residential water use in Fresno
•   Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
•   70% of residential water used for ir...
Challenges and Data Needs for Urban Ecology
Challenges and Data Needs for Urban Ecology
• Urban habitats are highly variable
  • many different land uses
  • rapid ch...
Challenges and Data Needs for Urban Ecology
• Urban habitats are highly variable
  • many different land uses
  • rapid ch...
Fresno-Clovis Metro Area (FCMA)
                        Fresno Bird Count Study
                            Madera




   ...
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
    Survey Design & Census Methodology
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
        Survey Design & Census Methodology

•   460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid
    • e...
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
        Survey Design & Census Methodology

•   460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid
    • e...
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
        Survey Design & Census Methodology

•   460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid
    • e...
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
        Survey Design & Census Methodology

•   460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid
    • e...
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
        Survey Design & Census Methodology

•   460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid
    • e...
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
   Habitat and Socioeconomic Assessment
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
          Habitat and Socioeconomic Assessment

•   A subset of 38 points, located in...
Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15:
           Habitat and Socioeconomic Assessment

•   A subset of 38 points, located i...
Examples of Irrigation Regimes



      0




      2




     3
Distribution of Bird Species Richness in the FCMA

   In 2008

• 186 points surveyed
  by 35 volunteers

• 86 bird species...
Irrigation is correlated with...

                                  Poverty                                               ...
Bird Species Richness is also
correlated with...
                           % Building                                    ...
Multivariate Drivers of Bird Diversity in the FCMA
  •   Stepwise regression: 9 variables, 8 interaction terms, mixed proc...
Conclusions from the FCMA
Conclusions from the FCMA

•   Urban bird diversity increased significantly with
    residential irrigation intensity.
Conclusions from the FCMA

•   Urban bird diversity increased significantly with
    residential irrigation intensity.
•   ...
Conclusions from the FCMA

•   Urban bird diversity increased significantly with
    residential irrigation intensity.
•   ...
Conclusions from the FCMA

•   Urban bird diversity increased significantly with
    residential irrigation intensity.
•   ...
Conclusions from the FCMA
Conclusions from the FCMA


•   Socioeconomic status and related irrigation /
    landscape management practices by reside...
Conclusions from the FCMA


•   Socioeconomic status and related irrigation /
    landscape management practices by reside...
Differences in landscape structure
                               Phoenix:
                                  Stream channe...
Abert’s Towhee




                Endemic to lower Sonoran desert
                Prefers riparian habitat, especially
Pi...
Abert’s Towhee in two cities
                  Phoenix                                                                    ...
Ongoing and proposed research
        in the FCMA
Ongoing and proposed research
              in the FCMA
 • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a
   Before-A...
Ongoing and proposed research
              in the FCMA
 • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a
   Before-A...
Ongoing and proposed research
              in the FCMA
 • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a
   Before-A...
Ongoing and proposed research
              in the FCMA
 • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a
   Before-A...
Ongoing and proposed research
              in the FCMA
 • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a
   Before-A...
Ongoing and proposed research
              in the FCMA
 • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a
   Before-A...
Ongoing and proposed research
              in the FCMA
 • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a
   Before-A...
A conceptual model of an
urban SES focusing on water
Thanks are due to:
• Inspiration:
   • Will Turner - Tucson Bird Count;
     CAP-LTER, BES
   • Mary Cadenasso, Derya Ozgo...
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Residential irrigation as a driver of urban biodiversity

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Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2010 Annual Meeting.

Meeting Abstract

67.11 Wednesday, Jan. 6 Resilience in urban socioecological systems: residential water management as a driver of biodiversity KATTI, M*; SCHLEDER, B; California State Univ, Fresno; California State Univ, Fresno mkatti@csufresno.edu

Cities are unique ecosystems where human social-economic-cultural activities prominently shape the landscape, influencing the distribution and abundance of other species, and consequent patterns of biodiversity. The long-term sustainability of cities is of increasing concern as they continue to grow, straining infrastructure and pushing against natural resources constraints. A key resource is water, esp. in the more rapidly urbanizing arid regions. Understanding water management is thus critical for a deeper theoretical understanding of urban ecosystems and for effective urban policy. Landscaping and irrigation at any urban residence is a product of local geophysical/ecological conditions, homeowners’ cultural preferences, socioeconomic status, neighborhood dynamics, zoning laws, and city/state/federal regulations. Since landscape structure and water availability are key determinants of habitat for other species, urban biodiversity is strongly driven by the outcome of interactions between these variables. Yet the relative importance of ecological variables vs human socioeconomic variables in driving urban biodiversity remains poorly understood. Here we analyze data from the Fresno Bird Count, a citizen science project in California’s Central Valley, to show that spatial variation in bird diversity is best explained by a multivariate model including significant negative correlations with % building and grass cover, and positive correlations with interactions between irrigation intensity, median family income, and grass height. We discuss implications of our findings for urban water management policies in general, and for Fresno’s planned switch to metering water use in 2013. Ecological theory, conservation, and urban policy all benefit if we recognize cities as coupled socioecological systems.

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  • Residential irrigation as a driver of urban biodiversity

    1. 1. Resilience in urban socioecological systems: residential water management as a driver of biodiversity Madhusudan Katti Bradley Schleder Department of Biology California State University, Fresno http://www.fresnobirds.org/
    2. 2. Natural Environment
    3. 3. Natural Environment Individual responses Behavior, Physiology, Life History
    4. 4. Regional/Global Ecosystem Natural Community Environment Population Individual responses Behavior, Physiology, Life History
    5. 5. Regional/Global Ecosystem Natural Community Human Environment Impact Population Individual responses Behavior, Physiology, Life History
    6. 6. A coupled socioecological system (SES) Actions interventions Human System Ecosystem Ecosystem services
    7. 7. Unpacking the black box of “human impact”
    8. 8. Unpacking the black box of “human impact” • Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and indirectly), e.g. by altering land-use/land-cover (LULC) with diverse effects on other species
    9. 9. Unpacking the black box of “human impact” • Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and indirectly), e.g. by altering land-use/land-cover (LULC) with diverse effects on other species • Human actions are complex products of interactions among many variables:
    10. 10. Unpacking the black box of “human impact” • Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and indirectly), e.g. by altering land-use/land-cover (LULC) with diverse effects on other species • Human actions are complex products of interactions among many variables: • economic characteristics
    11. 11. Unpacking the black box of “human impact” • Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and indirectly), e.g. by altering land-use/land-cover (LULC) with diverse effects on other species • Human actions are complex products of interactions among many variables: • economic characteristics • sociological arrangements
    12. 12. Unpacking the black box of “human impact” • Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and indirectly), e.g. by altering land-use/land-cover (LULC) with diverse effects on other species • Human actions are complex products of interactions among many variables: • economic characteristics • sociological arrangements • cultural characteristics and background
    13. 13. Unpacking the black box of “human impact” • Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and indirectly), e.g. by altering land-use/land-cover (LULC) with diverse effects on other species • Human actions are complex products of interactions among many variables: • economic characteristics • sociological arrangements • cultural characteristics and background • institutional arrangements
    14. 14. Unpacking the black box of “human impact” • Human actions alter the ecosystem (directly and indirectly), e.g. by altering land-use/land-cover (LULC) with diverse effects on other species • Human actions are complex products of interactions among many variables: • economic characteristics • sociological arrangements • cultural characteristics and background • institutional arrangements • politics
    15. 15. Residential water use in Fresno
    16. 16. Residential water use in Fresno • Currently, 51% of water is used residentially
    17. 17. Residential water use in Fresno • Currently, 51% of water is used residentially • 70% of residential water used for irrigation
    18. 18. Residential water use in Fresno • Currently, 51% of water is used residentially • 70% of residential water used for irrigation • Starting in 2013, flat rate water will be replaced by metered water
    19. 19. Residential water use in Fresno • Currently, 51% of water is used residentially • 70% of residential water used for irrigation • Starting in 2013, flat rate water will be replaced by metered water • As water becomes more expensive, residents are expected to reduce consumption
    20. 20. Residential water use in Fresno • Currently, 51% of water is used residentially • 70% of residential water used for irrigation • Starting in 2013, flat rate water will be replaced by metered water • As water becomes more expensive, residents are expected to reduce consumption • Residential irrigation is therefore predicted to decrease
    21. 21. Residential water use in Fresno • Currently, 51% of water is used residentially • 70% of residential water used for irrigation • Starting in 2013, flat rate water will be replaced by metered water • As water becomes more expensive, residents are expected to reduce consumption • Residential irrigation is therefore predicted to decrease • Decreased irrigation is in turn predicted to alter bird diversity
    22. 22. Residential water use in Fresno • Currently, 51% of water is used residentially • 70% of residential water used for irrigation • Starting in 2013, flat rate water will be replaced by metered water • As water becomes more expensive, residents are expected to reduce consumption • Residential irrigation is therefore predicted to decrease • Decreased irrigation is in turn predicted to alter bird diversity • The effects may be more extreme in impoverished urban areas
    23. 23. Challenges and Data Needs for Urban Ecology
    24. 24. Challenges and Data Needs for Urban Ecology • Urban habitats are highly variable • many different land uses • rapid changes over short distances • need many sites for data precision
    25. 25. Challenges and Data Needs for Urban Ecology • Urban habitats are highly variable • many different land uses • rapid changes over short distances • need many sites for data precision • Many species of birds • Measurements must be repeatable at same sites over years
    26. 26. Fresno-Clovis Metro Area (FCMA) Fresno Bird Count Study Madera Californi Clovi Fresno Fresno Fresno FBC Censused in Habitat surveyed site 2008 (N=200) (N=38)
    27. 27. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Survey Design & Census Methodology
    28. 28. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Survey Design & Census Methodology • 460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid • each site located randomly within a single grid cell
    29. 29. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Survey Design & Census Methodology • 460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid • each site located randomly within a single grid cell • Grouped into 58 clusters (routes) of 7-8 sites each • possible to cover all sites in a single morning
    30. 30. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Survey Design & Census Methodology • 460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid • each site located randomly within a single grid cell • Grouped into 58 clusters (routes) of 7-8 sites each • possible to cover all sites in a single morning • Counts conducted within 4 hours after sunrise
    31. 31. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Survey Design & Census Methodology • 460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid • each site located randomly within a single grid cell • Grouped into 58 clusters (routes) of 7-8 sites each • possible to cover all sites in a single morning • Counts conducted within 4 hours after sunrise • Point Count • 5-minute duration • count all birds seen & heard • within a 40m-radius circle
    32. 32. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Survey Design & Census Methodology • 460 sites on a 1Km X 1Km grid • each site located randomly within a single grid cell • Grouped into 58 clusters (routes) of 7-8 sites each • possible to cover all sites in a single morning • Counts conducted within 4 hours after sunrise • Point Count • 5-minute duration • count all birds seen & heard • within a 40m-radius circle • ~200 points surveyed during 2008 and 2009 each
    33. 33. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Habitat and Socioeconomic Assessment
    34. 34. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Habitat and Socioeconomic Assessment • A subset of 38 points, located in residential areas only
    35. 35. Fresno Bird Count - April 15-May 15: Habitat and Socioeconomic Assessment • A subset of 38 points, located in residential areas only • Rapid survey of habitat variables at 20m-radius plots • % Canopy Cover • Ground cover: % grass, impervious, dirt/mulch, buildings, gravel • Number of Trees • Average Tree Height • Number of Shrubs • Average Shrub Height • Grass Height • Irrigation intensity score (4 point scale: 0-3) for each residence overlapping plot; Mode of score is used in analyses presented here • % population in surrounding census block group living below poverty level (<$18,310/yr for a family of three)* *US Census, Department of Health and Human Services 2008 - 2009
    36. 36. Examples of Irrigation Regimes 0 2 3
    37. 37. Distribution of Bird Species Richness in the FCMA In 2008 • 186 points surveyed by 35 volunteers • 86 bird species recorded • 3263 total birds seen • Average species richness per site: 5.13 ± 0.16 SE 1-3 spp 3-6 spp 6-9 spp 9-12 spp
    38. 38. Irrigation is correlated with... Poverty Bird Species Richness 1.00 10 9 0.75 8 3 Mode Irrigation # Bird Species 7 0.50 6 5 4 0.25 2 3 2 0.00 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 2 3 % Poverty Mode Irrigation R2(U) =0.10, Χ2 p =0.01, F2,35=3.18, p =0.05, R2=0.15 N=38
    39. 39. Bird Species Richness is also correlated with... % Building Open Canopy 10 10 9 9 8 8 # Bird Species # Bird Species 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Building % Open Canopy R2 =0.12, p =0.04, N=38 R2 =0.11, p =0.04, N=38
    40. 40. Multivariate Drivers of Bird Diversity in the FCMA • Stepwise regression: 9 variables, 8 interaction terms, mixed procedure • Best fit model as shown in table below • Whole model R2=0.64 (adj. R2=0.53), F(8,24)=5.43, P=0.0006 Source +/- F-ratio Prob >F Mean Grass Height * Mode Irrigation Score + 10.71 0.003* % Building - 7.93 0.0096* Mean Grass Height (cm) - 4.81 0.038* % Poverty * Mode Irrigation Score + 4.33 0.048* % Poverty * % Building + 2.55 0.12 Mean Shrub Height (m) - 2.16 0.16 Mode Irrigation Score + 0.86 0.36 % Poverty - 0.048 0.83 • Model comparison based inference supported the above results; the lowest AICc = 119.665 for comparison of 56 8-paramater models
    41. 41. Conclusions from the FCMA
    42. 42. Conclusions from the FCMA • Urban bird diversity increased significantly with residential irrigation intensity.
    43. 43. Conclusions from the FCMA • Urban bird diversity increased significantly with residential irrigation intensity. • Residential irrigation intensity decreased significantly with increasing poverty levels.
    44. 44. Conclusions from the FCMA • Urban bird diversity increased significantly with residential irrigation intensity. • Residential irrigation intensity decreased significantly with increasing poverty levels. • Neighborhood poverty level (i.e., economic status) has strong effects on irrigation intensity even without water metering.
    45. 45. Conclusions from the FCMA • Urban bird diversity increased significantly with residential irrigation intensity. • Residential irrigation intensity decreased significantly with increasing poverty levels. • Neighborhood poverty level (i.e., economic status) has strong effects on irrigation intensity even without water metering. • Poverty also has strong indirect effects on bird diversity through intermediate variables including irrigation intensity, grass height, % building cover, and shrub height.
    46. 46. Conclusions from the FCMA
    47. 47. Conclusions from the FCMA • Socioeconomic status and related irrigation / landscape management practices by residents appear to be strong drivers of habitat structure for birds, and overall bird diversity in the FCMA.
    48. 48. Conclusions from the FCMA • Socioeconomic status and related irrigation / landscape management practices by residents appear to be strong drivers of habitat structure for birds, and overall bird diversity in the FCMA. • In an arid region like the San Joaquin Valley irrigation dramatically alters the landscape and may provide resources (food and cover) otherwise unavailable to bird species.
    49. 49. Differences in landscape structure Phoenix: Stream channels larger, more perennial More irrigation, pseudo-riparian vegetation, golf courses mesic yards Tucson: Mostly seasonal washes xeric yards Indian Bend Wash, Scottsdale Rillito Wash, Tucson
    50. 50. Abert’s Towhee Endemic to lower Sonoran desert Prefers riparian habitat, especially Pipilo aberti for breeding
    51. 51. Abert’s Towhee in two cities Phoenix Tucson 2.0 2.0 Ln (Towhee Abundance) SPRING Ln (Towhee Abundance) SPRING Spearman’s ρ = -0.336 Spearman’s ρ = -0.183 P = 0.016 P < 0.0001 1.5 Autumn 1.5 Winter Spring 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 Distance to Nearest River (m) Distance to Nearest Major Wash (m) M. Katti, W. Turner, E. Shochat (2001)
    52. 52. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA
    53. 53. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a Before-After-Control-Impact experiment (a “found” experiment)
    54. 54. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a Before-After-Control-Impact experiment (a “found” experiment) • Mapping of tree cover and species diversity
    55. 55. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a Before-After-Control-Impact experiment (a “found” experiment) • Mapping of tree cover and species diversity • Detailed socioeconomic and cultural surveys of individual homeowners (to begin in 2010)
    56. 56. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a Before-After-Control-Impact experiment (a “found” experiment) • Mapping of tree cover and species diversity • Detailed socioeconomic and cultural surveys of individual homeowners (to begin in 2010) • Survey of institutional agents
    57. 57. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a Before-After-Control-Impact experiment (a “found” experiment) • Mapping of tree cover and species diversity • Detailed socioeconomic and cultural surveys of individual homeowners (to begin in 2010) • Survey of institutional agents • Analysis of water policies
    58. 58. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a Before-After-Control-Impact experiment (a “found” experiment) • Mapping of tree cover and species diversity • Detailed socioeconomic and cultural surveys of individual homeowners (to begin in 2010) • Survey of institutional agents • Analysis of water policies • Detailed Land-Use/Land-Cover (LULC) modeling
    59. 59. Ongoing and proposed research in the FCMA • Results provide baseline (Before) data as part of a Before-After-Control-Impact experiment (a “found” experiment) • Mapping of tree cover and species diversity • Detailed socioeconomic and cultural surveys of individual homeowners (to begin in 2010) • Survey of institutional agents • Analysis of water policies • Detailed Land-Use/Land-Cover (LULC) modeling • Develop and test a more comprehensive model of the urban socioecological system (SES)
    60. 60. A conceptual model of an urban SES focusing on water
    61. 61. Thanks are due to: • Inspiration: • Will Turner - Tucson Bird Count; CAP-LTER, BES • Mary Cadenasso, Derya Ozgoc- Caglar, Andrew Jones, Lara Triona, Henry Delcore, John Bushoven, Sarah Wallace • Perspiration: • All the volunteers of the FBC! • Web Database (work in progress): • NiJeL.org (Lela Prashad, Nancy Jones, JD Godchaux) • Funding: • Provost, CSU-Fresno • College of Science & Mathematics, CSU-Fresno

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