Cities and Biodiversity Outlook - presented to Central Valley Café Scientifique


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Slides from a presentation of the UN Converntion on Biodiversity commissioned Cities and Biodiversity Outlook. Madhusudan Katti, one of the lead authors of the CBO, presented this to the Central Valley Café Scientifíque, on 3 December 2012, in Fresno, California.

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  • Completion of over two years of work150 authors, reviewers have been involvedIt started just after COP10 in Nagoya, the parties requested that an assessment of the links and opportunities between urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystems to be made
  • 125 scientists planner and practioners
  • Europe and North America slow urbanizationAsia is growing rapidlyAfrica stands out as the fastest urbanizing region in the world
  • Too often we get the static picture, urbanization is not just urban growth there are multiple other process we need to capture and understand
  • CBO makes regional analyses
  • Surat highlighted
  • Challenges, food water, health issuesOpportunities of greening, innovation, joint collaboration among scientists, planners, developers, politicians, citizensThis is our chance to get things rightSo much that could be done in integrating ecological knowledge in future design of urban landscapes
  • CBO give examples of all these opportunities
  • Many examples of how cities successfully have managed to maintain a rich biodiversityLessons learned on how to coexist
  • Critical Natural CapitalTEEB approach on integrating both monetary and non-monetary valuation into decision making
  • IPCC will in a couple of weeks announce an update of projections, we already passed all possibilities to contain global warming below 2 degrees, it is now questioned whether we will be able to contain it under 4 degrees
  • How cities may learn from each other forming networks
  • How cities may learn from each other forming networks
  • Cities and Biodiversity Outlook - presented to Central Valley Café Scientifique

    1. 1. CITIES AND BIODIVERSITY OUTLOOK- A global assessment of the links between urbanisation, biodiversity and ecosystem services
    2. 2. Mission:Serve as the first global synthesis on how urbanization impacts biodiversity andecosystem change. Requested by the parties of the CBD.What it does:Provide an overview, analysis and response to knowledge gaps on effects ofurbanization on social-ecological systemsFocus on solutions:Address how urban biodiversity and ecosystems could be used, designed andrestored in innovative ways for addressing current and future challenges andhighlight how cities may contribute to protect biodiversity and generateecosystem services
    3. 3. Ban Ki Moon:“The principal message is thaturban areas must offer betterstewardship of the ecosystemson which they rely, including bygenerating multiple ecosystemservices through design andrestoration and reducing theirenvironmental impact throughimproved efficiency of materialand energy use and by makingproductive use of waste”.October 2012
    4. 4. II. CBO-Scientific AssessmentGlobal Urbanization, Biodiversity and ecosystem services: Challenges and Opportunities• 13 chapters written by more than 50 scientists• Covering urbanization patterns, biodiversity trends, ecosystem services, climate change, food and water, governance, learning• Extensive scientific peer-review• Published by Springer (open access e-book + print on demand) 2013
    5. 5. Global Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Ecosystems – Challenges and OpportunitiesCities and Biodiversity Outlook – Scientific Analyses and AssessmentsChapter 1 – A global outlook on urbanization - challenges, and opportunitiesThomas Elmqvist, Robert Costanza, Charles Redman, Stephan Barthel, and Guy BarnettChapter 2 – Urbanization and trends in biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem functionsRobert McDonald and Peter MarcotullioChapter 3 – Patterns and trends in urban biodiversity and designNorbert Muller, Charles Nilon, Maria Ignatieva, and Peter WernerChapter 4 – Urban ecosystem servicesErik Gómez-Baggethun and Åsa Gren, Erik Andersson, Timon McPhearson, and David N.Barton, Patrick O’Farrell, Zoé Hamstead, and Peleg KremerChapter 5 – Shrinking cities and impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversityDagmar HaaseChapter 6 – Urban ecological restorationSteven Handel, Bruce Clarkson
    6. 6. Chapter 7 – Typologies of urbanization, effects on land use, biodiversity, andecosystem servicesKaren Seto, Michail Fragkias, and Burak Guneralp, Julie GoodnessChapter 8 – Urbanization, climate change, and urban biodiversityWilliam SoleckiChapter 9 – Food and water in an urbanizing worldRob Dybal, Lisa Deutsch, and Will SteffenChapter 10 – Urban governance for biodiversity and ecosystem servicesSue Parnell, Cathy Wilkinson, and Marte SendstadChapter 11 – Urban landscapes as learning arenas for sustainable management ofbiodiversity and ecosystem servicesMarianne Krasny and Cecilia LundholmChapter 12 – Indicators: scientific evaluation of City Biodiversity IndexRyo Kohsaka, Henrique Pereira, and Thomas ElmqvistChapter 13 – Summary and synthesisCoordinating Lead Authors / Editorial Team
    7. 7. Knowledge Gap Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)– the world’s largest assessment of ecosystems - few references to urban areas World Development Report - World Bank – the world’s largest assessment of urbanization published annually - few references to ecosystems
    8. 8. Assessment of recent science
    9. 9. Four urbanization trends• The total urban area is expected to triple between 2000 and 2030, while urban populations are expected to nearly double• This urban expansion will heavily draw on natural resources, including water, on a global scale, and will often consume prime agricultural land, with knock-on effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services elsewhere• Urban expansion is occurring fast in areas adjacent to biodiversity hotspots and faster in low-elevation, biodiversity-rich coastal zones than in other areas• Urbanization rates are highest in those regions of the world where the capacity to inform policy is absent and where there are generally under-resourced and poorly capacitated urban governance arrangements
    10. 10. Predicted Urban Growth 2010-2025
    11. 11. Dynamic view of human domination
    12. 12. Urbanization in IndiaMumbai–Delhi Urban Corridor - approximately 1,500 kilometers longEven the largest Indian cities retain a high proportion of native plants, birds, butterflies, andother taxa
    13. 13. Urbanization in ChinaUrban expansion - 1,800-kilometer coastal urban corridor from Hangzhou to ShenyangUrban expansion rapid in the interior and increasingly affect biodiversity hotspots
    14. 14. • Cities are beginning to take an active role in the management of resources and impacts on the regional or even global scale, considering the multi-scale, interconnected resource chains and their diverse actors.• But, cities need to form large networks and must jointly take increased responsibility for motivating and implementing solutions that take into account their profound connections with and impacts on the rest of the planet.
    15. 15. Examples of large Natural Remnants in cities: • Mata Atlantica in Rio de Janeiro • Evergreen forests in Singapore • National Park El Avila in Caracas • Bushland in Perth, Sydney, and Brisbane • Forests in York, Canada • Sonoran desert parks in Tucson and Phoenix • Ridge Forest in New Delhi • Semi-evergreen forest of Sanjay Gandhi National Park in MumbaiRua Gonçalo de Carvalho, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    16. 16. Wetlands in Accra, GhanaIntegrated management forecosystem services
    17. 17. Estimated monetary value of urban woodland per hectare per year (average value based on studies in 9 cities in the world) Air quality regulation - 602 USD Recreation – 5230 USD Energy savings - 1303 USD30% of cost of restoring 1 ha of urban woodland Carbon storage - 2906 USD Storm water reduction - 802 USD Sum = 11,927 USD per hectare per year Elmqvist et al ms
    18. 18. Value of biodiversity and ecosystems TEEB 2010
    19. 19. Green areas and health• Perceived health, mortality, green space (N = 250 782).• The percentage of green space inside a three km radius from home had a significant positive relation to perceived general health Maas J, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP, et al. 2006. Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 60(7)
    20. 20. Green areas and healthAn observational population study of the populationof England younger than retirement age (N= 40 813236). A significant association between residence in themost green areas and decreased rates for all-causeand circulatory mortality in 2001-2005 (366 348deaths) with control for potential confoundingfactors. Mitchell R, Popham F 2008. Effect of exposure to natural environment on health inequalities: an observational population study. Lancet 372(9650): 1655-1660.
    21. 21. Green areas and health• A type of gammaproteobacteria – Acinetobacter - strongly linked to the development of anti-inflammatory molecules• The more gammaproteobacteria on the skin the larger immunological responses which are known to suppress inflammatory responses• Gammaproteobacteria are more prevalent in vegetation such as forests and grasslands, but rare in built-up areas Hanski et al 2012. Environmental biodiversity, human microbiota, and allergy are interrelated. PNAS vol. 109 no. 21 8334-8339
    22. 22. We already passed 400 ppm Co2 in the atmosphere (June 2012)
    23. 23. Cities vulnerable to sea level rise
    24. 24. Local climate in YokohamaNew tax to support green areaexpansionGoal of 30% green area
    25. 25. Climate Action plan jn Mexico CityLarge green roof programReward private landowners to restoredegraded habitatsSupport community groups inconservation efforts
    26. 26. “Every city is unique, with its own social and ecologicalprerequisites for development and evolution - there are noglobal panaceas to sustainability. - But, there is much to be gained from questioning currenttrajectories and values while learning from others, producingbetter evidence and sharing information and experiences. Nocity can solve the current challenges alone.”
    27. 27. Tool box• Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans (LBSAPS) - CBD• Cities Biodiversity Index (CBI) – CBD, IUCN, ICLEI• TEEB for cities• URBIS – Urban Biosphere Initiative, ICLEI-IUCN-UNESCO- CBD• Local Action for Biodiversity – ICLEI-IUCN-CBD• Cities and Biodiversity Hotspot Initiative ICLEI-CBD
    28. 28. Take home messagesRedefining the role of cities - increasingly become sources of ecosystem services rather than sinks - provide stewardship of marine, terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems elsewhereDeveloping the concept of nature based solutions: - urban ecosystems used to address challenges related to climate change, food and water security, - explore how attributes of ecosystems, such as diversity, modularityand redundancy may be interpreted, applied and used to build resilience In the urban landscape.
    29. 29.
    30. 30. Thank You!