自行車訓練聖經

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自行車訓練聖經

  1. 1. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第1章 承诺 At the base of the climb, which was 12 kilometers 这是一段 12 公里长的上坡,在山脚下,我开始 long, I started to look around and saw Ullrich, 环顾四周并看到乌尔里希,潘塔尼,维廉切,里 Pantani, Virenque, Riis, Escartin, and Jimenez – all 斯,斯卡丁及希门尼斯 ―― 全都是总排名前 10 in the top 10 of the general classification – and then 位的高手 ―― 还有我。我没掉队!我是第一次 me. I was hanging, I was there with these guys for the first time. 跟这一帮人骑在一起。 -- BOBBY JULICH, commenting on the moment ――BOBBY JULICH,在 1997 年的环法赛中,当 in the 1997 Tour de France when he realized he 他意识到自己有机会争夺名次时的评论 was a contender Talk is cheap. It’s easy to have big dreams and 嘴巴说说是毫不费力的。在比赛前拥有一个 set high goals before the racing starts. But the 大梦及设定很高的目标也很简单。但是真正 true test of a commitment to better racing 对所承诺的更好比赛成绩的考验,不是靠 results is not in the talking, but in the doing. It 说,而是靠做。它并不是从这个赛季的第一 doesn’t start with the first race of the season – it’s all the things you do today to get stronger, 场比赛开始 ―― 它是你现在所做的所有使 faster, and more enduring. Real commitment 你变得更强壮,更快,耐力更好的所有事 means 365 days a year and 24 hours a day. 情。真正的承诺体现在一年 365 天和一天 24 小时。 Talk to the best riders you know, Ask 和你知道的最好的车手交谈,听听他们 them about commitment. Once you probe past 关于承诺的看法。 过滤掉那些“噢,什 all of the “aw, shucks” stuff, you’ll discover 么!”之类的废话后,你会发现骑自行车在 how big a role cycling plays in their lives. The 他们的生活中是扮演着多大的一个角色。他 better they are, the more you’ll hear about life revolving around the sport. The most common 们越出色,你就会听到越多围绕运动的生活 remark will be that each day is arranged around 方式。最普遍的评论是每天的生活围绕着训 training. It’s a rare champion who fits in 练来安排。几乎没有哪个冠军没有计划地训 workouts randomly. 练出来的。 Racing to your potential cannot be an on- 要想在比赛中发挥出所有身体潜能,就 again, off-again endeavor. It’s a full-time 不能三天打鱼,两天晒网。这是个永久性的 commitment – a passion. Excellence requires 承诺 ―― 是一种热情。卓越需要每天都按 living, breathing, eating, and sleeping cycling 计划生活,呼吸,吃饭,睡觉及骑车。 every day. Literally. The greater the commitment, the more life 承诺越大,生命就会越集中在训练的三 is centered around the basic three factors of 项基本要素上 ―― 吃饭,睡觉及高强度训 training – eating, sleeping, and working out. 练。吃东西可以为训练补充体力,也可以补 Eating fuels the body for training and speeds 充消耗掉的能量和营养储备从而加速恢复。 recovery by replacing depleted energy and nutrient stores. Sleeping and working out have 睡眠及高强度训练的协同作用能够提高身体 a synergistic effect on fitness: Each can cause 素质:它们都能引起从脑垂体腺分泌生长激 the release of growth hormone from the 素。生长激素能加度恢复,再造肌肉,并且 pituitary gland. Growth hormone speeds 分解脂肪。如果每日训练两次,午睡一次, recovery, rebuilds muscles, and breaks down 那么这个车手就能每天获得四次分泌生长激 body fat. By training twice daily and taking a 素的机会,从而较快地达到更高水平的身体 nap, the dedicated rider gets four hits of growth 素质。 hormone daily resulting in higher levels of 1
  2. 2. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 fitness sooner. In the final analysis, greater fitness is what 归根到底,更好的身体素质是我们的共 we’re all after. It’s the product of three 同目标。它有三种成分:生理压力,休息, ingredients: stress, rest, and fuel. Table 1.1 和补给。 表 1.1 说明训练,睡眠,及吃饭如 illustrates how training, sleeping, and eating 何在你的日常生活中建立。 can be built into your day. 每日训练两次 每日训练一次 工作日 非工作日 工作日 非工作日 6:00 AM 起床 起床 起床 起床 :30 训练 1 吃饭 训练 1 吃饭 7:00 | 拉伸运动 | 拉伸运动 :30 | 个人事务 | 个人事务 8:00 吃饭 | 吃饭 | :30 淋浴 训练 1 淋浴 训练 1 9:00 工作 | 工作 | :30 | | | | 10:00 | | | | :30 | 吃饭 | | 11:00 | 淋浴 | | :30 吃饭 午睡 | 吃饭 12:00 PM 午睡 拉伸运动 吃饭 淋浴 :30 工作 个人事务 午睡 午睡 1:00 | 吃饭 工作 个人事务 :30 | 个人事务 | | 2:00 | | | | :30 | 训练 2 | | 3:00 吃饭 | 吃饭 吃饭 :30 工作 | 工作 个人事务 4:00 | | | | :30 | 吃饭 | | 5:00 下班 淋浴 下班 | :30 训练 2 小睡 个人事务 | 6:00 | 拉伸运动 | | :30 吃饭 个人事务 吃饭 吃饭 7:00 淋浴 | 个人事务 个人事务 :30 个人事务 吃饭 | | 8:00 | 个人事务 | | :30 吃饭 | | | 9:00 就寝 就寝 就寝 就寝 Table 1.1 Suggested Daily routines 表 1.1 建议的每天日常生活 This kind of commitment may not be for 你的承诺可能并不适合你。实际上,从 you. In fact, there comes a point at which each 我们每个人最终都必须面对并搞清楚哪些是 of us had to check our “want to” against our “想要做”的事,而哪些是“不得不做” “have to”. Jobs, families, and other 的。工作,家庭以及其他责任不能因为运动 responsibilities can’t be forsaken for sport. Even the pros must consider other aspects of 而被遗弃,即使是那些专业运动员也必须考 life. Those elements that contribute to making 虑到生活的其他方面。这些让你成为伟大车 2
  3. 3. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 you a great cyclist may detract from your being 手的因素可能会使你无法成为一个好的雇 a great employee, mother, father, or spouse, 员,母亲,父亲或者配偶。实际上,你必须 Realistically, there have to be limits to passion; 适当控制骑车的热情;否则用不了多久我们 otherwise we’d soon alienate everyone who 就会疏远所有那些不象我们同样狂热的人, wasn’t equally zealous and be reduced to slobbering zombies. 并退化成不近人情的怪人。 Change 改变 What can you do to improve your fitness and 为了改善身体素质和比赛成绩你能做些什么 race performances? The first thing is to make 呢?第一个事情是在你的生活中做点小的改 small changes in your life. Balance can be hard 变。平衡可能很难获得,但是日常活动中朝 to achieve, but remolding daily activities by 10 着骑得更好的方向改变百分之十并不会没花 percent in the direction of better cycling doesn’t take much and can bring noticeable 费多少时间,却能带来显著的改进。比如每 improvement. How about committing to hitting 晚提早 30 分钟睡觉的承诺如何,这样你就 the sack thirty minutes earlier each night so 能获得更多的休息?另一项能带来健康饮食 that you’re more rested? Another small daily 习惯的小改变是:你能否每天少吃百分之十 change that could bring better results in 的垃圾食品,而代之以真正的食物呢?你吃 healthier eating. Could you cut out 10 percent 进你嘴里的东西就是未来六个月里身体用来 of the junk food every day, replacing it with 重造和替换每个肌肉细胞的原料。你希望你 wholesome foods? What you put in your mouth 的肌肉是由炸薯片,奶油卷和爆米花组成的 is the stuff the body used to completely rebuild and replace each muscle cell every six months. 吗?或者是由水果,蔬菜和瘦肉所制成的 Do you want muscles made from potato chips, 呢?所有这些你能改变吗? Twinkies, and pop; or from fruits, vegetables, and lean meat? What can you change? The Cyclist’s Training Bible can help you 《自行车训练圣经》能帮助你作一些会 make some small changes that will bring big 带来大结果的小改变。但是哪些才是成功所 results. But what are the most important 需要的最重要的改变呢?是什么使冠军成为 changes needed for success? What makes a 一名冠军呢? champion a champion? Attributes of Champions 冠军的属性 Successful athletes and coaches ask two 在寻求运动技能巅峰的过程中,成功的运动 questions in their quest for peak athletic 员和教练会问两个问题: performance: • What does science say? • 科学是怎么说的? • How do champions train? • 冠军是如何训练的? Much of this book is based on answers to 这本书的大部分是基于第一个问题的答 the first question, but the second is not less 案, 但是第二个问题并不是不重要,顶级运 important. Often the top athletes are ahead of 动员往往会走在科学前面,然后大家才知道 science when it comes to knowing what works 什么方法有效,什么方法无效。运动科学家 3
  4. 4. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 and what doesn’t. Exercise scientists become 之所以对训练的某些方面有兴趣,是因为它 interested in some aspect of training because it 们似乎对某些运动员有效。他们的研究只是 seems to work for some athletes. Their studies 用于确定为什么它会有效。 are designed to determine why it’s beneficial. If we eliminate their individual abilities 如果我们排除他们个别的能力并且把剩 and boil the remainder down to the most basic 余的部分归纳成最基本的要素,也就是那些 elements, what is left are the attributes that 使冠军们成功的特性。我相信总共有六种这 bring success to the champions. I believe there 样的特性:能力,动力,机会,任务,支持 are six such attributes: ability, motivation, opportunity, mission, support system, and 系统和方向。 direction. Ability 能力 Genetics have a lot to do with achievement in 遗传学与运动成绩有许多的关联。明显的例 sport. There are some obvious examples: Tall 子包括:身材高大的篮球运动员,体型巨大 basketball players, huge sumo wrestler, small 的相扑选手,身材矮小的赛马骑手,还有长 jockeys, and long-armed swimmers are but a 臂的游泳选手但并不多见。这样的运动员天 few. Such athletes were born with at least one of the physical traits necessary to succeed in 生具有至少一样生理特质,这种特质是他们 their chosen sport. 选择的运动项目获得成功所需要的。 What are the physical traits common to 大部分顶尖的自行车车手所共同具有的 most of those who are at the pinnacle of 生理特质是什么呢?最明显的是强壮有力的 cycling? The most obvious are strong, powerful 双腿和高的携氧能力(VO2max)。还有其它一 legs and a high aerobic capacity (VO2max). 些不十分明显的生理特质。为了爬坡,肌肉 There are other physical traits that aren’t quite as obvious. In order to climb hills, muscular 的力量是另一种关键特性。我们不太容易看 power is another key trait. We can’t see power 出骑手的力量,因为它不象长长的手臂或壮 in a rider in the same way we can see body 实的身体那样明显。有其他生理学特性来定 mass or long arms. There are other 义他们的骑行能力,包括乳酸阈值和运动效 physiological traits that define ability in 率(详细信息参见第 3 章)。这些因素部分 cycling; including lactate threshold and 程度上由遗传决定,但是也可能通过训练来 economy (see Chapter 3 for details). These are 加以改善。 somewhat determined by genetics, but they may also be improved by training. So how much natural ability do you have? 那么你有多少天生的能力呢?你离你的 How close are you to reaching your potential? 潜能还有多远呢?没有人能肯定地回答。最 No one can say for sure. The best indicator 好的指标或许是在你过去的训练中你是如何 may be how you’ve done in the sport in the 做的。平庸的训练产生好的训练结果通常表 past relative to your training. Good results combined with mediocre training usually 示潜能并未被开发。极好的训练却有糟糕结 indicate untapped potential. Excellent training 果也一样是潜能有待启发。 with poor results is also revealing of potential. If you are new to the sport with less than 如果你是只有不到三年的比赛经验的新 three years of racing, your results may not tell 手,你的成果可能无法告诉多少你的能力和 4
  5. 5. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 you much about your ability and potential. In 潜能。在最初的三年有许多细胞级的变化在 the first three years there are a lot of changes 发生 ―― 这些改变终将显示出一个骑手的 happening at the cellular level – changes that 能力。这表明即使一个新手表现得很成功, will eventually reveal a rider’s ability. This 他或者她也可能无法继续保持优势地位。其 means that even if someone new to the sport is successful, he or she may not continue to 他初学者可能终将赶上并超越这些最成功的 dominate. Other beginners may eventually 新手。这经常是由于人体对训练作出反应的 catch up to and surpass the most successful 速度不同所造成的。 novices. This is often due to the different rates at which the human body responds to training. Some people are “fast responders” and 有些人是“快速反应者”,而其它的人 others are “slow responders”. Fast responders 则是“慢速反应者”。由于一些未知的原 gain fitness quickly because, for some 因,快速反应者的细胞能迅速改变,从而可 unknown reason, their cells are capable of 以很快地改善身体体质。而其它人则需要花 changing rapidly. Others take much longer, perhaps years, to realize the same gains. The 较长的时间,或许几年,才能获得相同的成 problem for slow responders is that they often 果。慢速反应者的问题是他们常常在收获训 give up before reaping the benefits of training. 练成果之前就放弃了。 图 1.1 展示了反应曲 Figure 1.1 illustrates the response curve. 线。 Figure 1.1 Theoretical bell-shaped curve indicating 图 1.1 理论上的铃状曲线,表示对给定训练刺激 level of response to a given training 的反应水平 stimulus Motivation 动力 The highly motivated cyclist has a passion 高度积极的自行车骑手都有一种运动的 for the sport. Passion is generally evident in 热情。热情一般反映在骑车的时间上,对自 how much time is devoted to riding, caring for 行车的关心上, 读与自行车有关的书和杂 the bike, reading books and magazines about 志,同其他骑手交往,甚至只是想到运动。 cycling, associating with other riders, and simply thinking about the sport. 5
  6. 6. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Those who are passionate about the sport 这些热爱运动人也经常养成很好的“骑 also frequently have a well-developed work 品”。他们相信只有艰苦的锻炼才会产生好 ethic. They believe that hard training is what 的结果。在某种程度上这是一种值得拥有的 produces good results. Up to a point that is a 品质,因为成功真的需要训练的持续性,但 valuable trait to have, as success does indeed demand consistency in training. The problem is 问题在于骑车的热情结合太强的“骑品”有 that combination of passion for cycling and a 时会导致过度的自我强迫的训练。这些骑手 strong work ethic sometimes leads to 已经无法让自己停下来了。如果哪天不骑 obsessive-compulsive training. These riders 车,他们就会有负罪感。对这些运动员来 just can’t stop riding. If they do, their sense of 说,训练中断 ―― 比如受伤,商务旅行, guilt can become overwhelming. For such 或度假 ―― 都会破坏他们的情绪。因为他 athletes, training interruptions – such as 们的训练模式可能要被打断,但训练热情却 injuries, business trips, or vacations – are 仍然高涨。 emotionally devastating. This is because their training pattern may be disrupted, but their obsessive motivation is still intact. This obsessive-compulsive trait is most 过度自我强迫的特征在新骑手中特别常 common in riders who are new to the sport. 见。他们觉得这项运动被他们发现得太晚 They believe that they discovered the sport too 了,所以需要加倍训练来赶超其他骑手。他 late in life and need to catch up with others by 们还害怕一旦停止训练,哪怕就几天,也可 training a lot. They also fear that if they stop training for even a few days that they may 能会使他们退回到原先的那种未锻炼时的状 revert back to their former, unfit selves. No 态,却没有想到过度训练的阴影会在头三年 wonder overtraining is rampant among those in 训练中一直都笼罩在他们头上。 their first three years of racing. Regardless of when in life you started or 不管你从多大年纪开始这项运动,也不 how burning your desire is to be good, it’s 管如何来燃烧你的欲望,最重要的是你要把 critical that you view excellence in athletics as 运动生涯中的辉煌看做一段旅程,而不是终 a journey, not a destination. You will never 点。你永远不会达到让你完全满意的运动能 arrive at the point where you are fully satisfied with your performance. That’s the nature of 力和状态,这就是高度积极的人的天性。所 highly motivated people. So obsessive- 以靠过度的自我强迫训练来达到比赛能力的 compulsive training in order to achieve racing 涅槃 ―― 然后你就可功成身退 ―― 完全是 nirvana – where you can finally back off – is 个幻想。一但你认识到这些并有了一个长期 not going to happen. Once you realize this and 的训练目标,那么被过度训练,力竭和生病 take a long-term approach to training, your 所压垮的可能性就小多了,你就能更持久地 break-downs from overtraining, burnout, and 坚持训练从而获得更好的比赛能力。而且如 illness will diminish, allowing you to achieve 果不可避免地发生暂时性的能力退步的话, training with greater consistency and better race performances. You will also experience 你的精神压力和挫折感也会小一些。 less mental anguish and frustration when the inevitable setbacks occur. Cycling is a life-long sport to be enjoyed 骑车是一生的运动,也会给你一生的快 for what it brings to your life – superb fitness, 乐 ―― 超人的身体素质,极棒的身体,快 excellent health, enjoyable times, and good 乐的时光,以及很好的朋友,所以不要把它 friends. It is not an opponent to be subdued and 当作要压倒和征服的对手。 conquered. 6
  7. 7. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Opportunity 机会 The chances are great that the best potential 世界上最具潜质的运动员很可能是那些身体 athlete in the world is an overweight, sedentary 超重,不喜欢活动的老烟鬼,这个天生就应 smoker. Right now, sitting in front of a 该是自行车世界冠军并划时代地统治这项运 television somewhere is this person born to be 动的人,现在就坐在世界的某个角落里看电 the world champion in cycling and to dominate the sport as no one ever has. At birth he was 视呢。从出生的那天起,上帝就给了他最好 blessed with a huge aerobic capacity and all of 的摄氧能力,以及其它为了成功所必备的身 the other physiological ingredients necessary 体条件。可问题是他从来没有机会发现自己 for success. The problem is that he never had 的能力,即使有一天他想这样做也不行。也 the opportunity to discover his ability, even 许他天生贫穷,被迫早早地工作来养家糊 though the motivation may have been there at 口;也许他生活在战乱频仍的国家,保住性 one time. Maybe he was born into poverty and 命已属不易;或者也许他从来就不关心骑车 forced to work at an early age to help feed the 运动,而是醉心于足球或者弹钢琴什么的。 family. Maybe he lives in a war-ravaged corner of the world where staying alive is the number 因为机会女神不肯光顾,所以我们永远也无 one priority. Or perhaps cycling just never 法知道他到底能够做出多大的成就。 caught his attention and he instead found success in soccer or piano playing. We’ll never know what he could have been because the opportunity never presented itself. The lack of opportunity need not be so 当然,做为一个骑手你的成长过程中也 extreme to hold back your growth as a cyclist, 许不会遇到这么极端的坏运气。但如果下列 however. If any of the following are missing, 的条件无法满足的话,要想充分发挥你的潜 your opportunity to realize full potential may 力也许就会困难一些: be compromised: • A network of roads to ride on • 适合骑行的公路网 • Terrain variety – flats and hills • 多样的地形 ―― 平路和山峰 • Adequate nutrition • 充足的营养 • Good equipment • 好的装备 • Coaching • 教练指导 • Training partners • 训练伙伴 • Weight-room equipment • 健身房设备 • Time to train • 训练时间的保证 • Available races • 能够参加的比赛 • A low-stress environment • 生活压力较小的环境 • Supportive family and friends • 家人和朋友的支持 This list could go on and on – there are 这个清单还可以一直拉下去 ―― 还有 many environmental elements that contribute to 很多环境因素会影响你完全发挥骑车的潜 your overall opportunity to achieve your 能。你越是渴望变得优秀,这些因素就会显 potential in cycling. The greater your desire to 得越重要,你也就越有必要改变生活方式和 excel, the more important it becomes to mold your lifestyle and environment to match your 环境来适应你的雄心壮志。 aspirations. 7
  8. 8. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 Mission 使命感 When you think of champions such as Merckx, 当你想到那些冠军们,Merckx,Hinault, Hinault, LeMond, or Armstrong, what comes to LeMond,以及 Armstrong 的时候,首先跳入 mind? More than likely, it is winning the Tour 脑海的是什么?很有可能是他们赢得了环法 de France. Why do you think of that? Probably 大赛。为什么你会想到这些呢?也许是因为 because these athletes had a passion for winning the Tour that was, and is, evident for 这些运动员都有一种赢得大赛的激情,并且 all to see. Their motivation to succeed was 已经证明给了所有的人。很少有人有他们这 exceptional. They were willing to make any 样强的争取胜利的动机。他们愿意付出任何 sacrifice, to ride any number of miles, to do 牺牲,无论骑多远的路程,无论做什么样的 any workouts deemed beneficial to achieving 训练,只要这样做对达成目标是有利的。在 the goal. Approaching the peaks of their 他们努力接近事业的顶峰的过程中,骑自行 careers, riding was highly important in their 车在他们的生活中是最最重要的,而其他的 lives. Everything else became just the details of 一切事情都变成生活中的细节。 life. What you can learn from these champions 你能从冠军们那里能学习到的是:动机 is that motivation and dedication are paramount 和投入是达成梦想的最高原则:梦越大,使 to achieving your dreams: The greater the 命就越多。这本书或其他任何人都不能帮助 dreams, the bigger the mission. Neither this 你去选择梦想,或变得更投入。只有靠你自 book nor anyone else can help you choose dreams and become more dedicated. Only you 己去做到。我只能告诉你,无论怎样,失去 can do that. I can tell you, however, that 了热情和使命感,你将永远只是混在大集团 without passion, without a mission, you’ll 军中的普通车手而已。 always be just another rider in the peloton. Support System 支持系统 The greatest rider with the biggest dreams will 如果没有支持系统――周围那些坚定相信你 never become a champion without a support 的使命并帮助你实践的人 ―― 的支持,即 system – others who also believe in the mission 使有再大梦想的伟大车手也绝不能成为冠 and are committed to it. Surrounding 军。围绕在冠军周围的是家庭,朋友,队 champions are family, friends, teammates, director, coaches, soigneurs, and mechanics, all 友,车队经理,教练,助理和机械师,所有 of whom are there to help the champion attain 这些人都在那里帮助冠军去实现他或她的梦 his or her dream. The rider becomes immersed 想。车手会沉浸在一种“我们能做到“的氛 in the we-can-do-it attitude. The mission is no 围之中。他的使命已不再是他个人的事 ―― longer singular – it becomes a group effort. 它已经变成一种团体的努力。一旦能做到这 Once this is achieved, success is 90 percent 些,那么你几乎已经成功了百分之九十了。 assured. Do you have a support system? Do those 你有一个支持系统吗?那些在你周围的 around you even know what your goals, let 人可曾知道你的目标,更别提你的梦想了? alone your dreams, are? Is there a mentor or 可有一位良师或挚友来分享你的挑战和梦想 close friend with whom to share your 吗?再说一次,这本书不能帮助你建立一个 challenges and vision? Again, this book can’t 8
  9. 9. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 1 COMMITMENT 第 1 章 承诺 help you develop a support system. Only you 支持系统。只有你自己能做得到。支持系统 can do that. Support systems start with you 的建立是从你帮助别人,或许队友,实现他 offering to help others, perhaps teammates, 们最高的目标时开始的。相互支持是有感染 attain their highest goals. Support is 力的,去帮助别人吧。 contagious. Give yours to someone else. Direction 方向 Champions don’t train aimlessly. They also 冠军是不会无目标的训练的。他们也不会盲 don’t blindly follow another rider’s training 目地遵循别人的训练计划。他们明白胜利与 plan. They understand that the difference 失败之间的差别往往只有猫的胡须那样细 between winning and losing is often as slight as 微。他们知道他们的训练不能毫无计划或靠 a cat’s whisker. They know their training can’t be haphazard or left to chance. Merely having a 运气。哪怕拥有一个详细的计划也能增加一 detailed plan provides confidence. It’s the final, 些自信。 它只是追求梦想的拼图中最后,也 and smallest, piece in the quest for the dream. 是最小的一片拼板。但如果没有计划,冠军 Without a plan, the champion never makes it to 将永远无法站上领奖台。 the victory stand. This is where The Cyclist’s Training Bible 这就是自行车训练圣经能帮助你的地 can help you. While this book offers the reader 方。虽然这本书介绍给读者的方法是个性化 individualized, results-oriented, and scientific 的,以结果为导向的,和科学的,但遵循这 methods, following its program won’t 个程序不能保证一定成功。不过如果你已经 guarantee success. But if you already have some ability, the opportunity has presented 具备一些能力,也得到一些机遇,还有一项 itself, a mission is well-defined, and the 明确的任务,支持系统也到位了,那你差不 support system is in place, you’re practically 多就快成功了。这或许就是最后的决定性的 there. This just may be the final and decisive 一环。 element. 9
  10. 10. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Chapter 2 SMART 第2章 聪明地训练 TRAINING You can’t train luck. 你不可能靠运气训练。 -- EDDIE BORYSEWICZ ――EDDIE BORYSEWICZ Renowned Polish-American cycling coach 著名的美籍波兰裔自行车教练 Why is it that some start their cycling career 为什么有些人在他们的自行车运动生涯刚开 with little sign of physical talent and years later 始时没表现出什么运动天赋,但几年之后就 reach the pinnacle of the sport as elite amateurs 达到了巅峰状态成为业余精英或职业选手? or pros? Why are there others who excel at an 为什么其它一些早期时相当杰出的人,在实 early age, fizzle, and eventually drop out of the sport before realizing their full potential? 现他们的全部潜能之前,就宣告失败,并且 最终退出这项运动? Those who persevere probably had talent 这些能坚持到底的人,或许从始至终就 all along, but it wasn’t immediately evident. 拥有这种天赋,只是并没有马上表现出来而 More than likely, the young athlete had a 已。极可能的是,年轻运动员有父母,教练 parent, coach, or mentor concerned about the 或者导师的长期关心,他们也许想让手中的 long term. They probably wanted to see their protégé in full bloom, so they brought the “小花”完全绽放,因此他们指导运动员时 athlete along slowly and deliberately. 缓慢而谨慎。 The successful athlete’s workouts may not 成功的运动员,他们的训练或许不是最 have been the most scientific, but a sensible 科学的,但却有一种从他或她的运动生涯早 training philosophy was established early in his 期就已确立了的合理的训练哲学。相反的, or her career. In contrast, the young cyclist who 那些没有成为资深骑手的年轻人因为父母或 failed to make it as a senior may have been driven too hard by a parent or coach whose 教练的过度要求而失败了,虽然他们的初衷 intentions were good, but whose techniques left 是好的,但是他们采取的方法不够令人满 something to be desired. 意。 When I begin to train athletes, I start by 当我开始训练运动员之前,我总是先彻 getting to know them fairly well – but it still 底地了解他们 ――这需要花费数周的时间才 takes weeks to determine exactly how they 能确信如何训练他们。在制定一套有效的训 should train. There are many individual factors 练计划过程中,必须考虑许多个人的因素。 to consider in developing an effective training program. A few of these factors are: 这些因素包括: • Years of experience in the sport • 从事这项运动有几年的经验 • Age and maturational level • 年龄和成熟的程度 • How training had progressed in the long • 过去很长时期里如何进行训练的 term • 最近的训练计划 • Most recent training program • 个人的长处和弱点 • Personal strengths and weaknesses • 当地的地形和天气状况 • Local terrain and weather conditions • 重要比赛日程 • Schedule of important races • 最重要比赛的细节:时长,地形,竞争 • Details of the most important races: duration, terrain, competition, previous 对手,往届成绩 results • 最近和现在的健康状况 1
  11. 11. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 • Recent and current health status • 生活压力(比如,工作方面,家庭方 • Lifestyle stress (work and family issues, 面) for example) The list could go on and on. There are 这个清单还可以更长。我或其他人可以 simply too many unknowns for me or anyone 给你一些如何最好地准备比赛的建议,但我 else to advise you on how best to prepare for 们有太多不了解的关于你的事情。归根结 competition. After all, right now no one knows 底,你是最了解你自己的人,只有你才配做 you as well as you do. Only you can make such decisions. All that is needed are the tools. 这样的决定。你需要的只是工具。这就是我 That’s why I wrote The Cyclist’s Training 写这本书的原因 ―― 这样你就能更好地给 Bible – so that you might do a better job of 自己当教练了。 self-coaching. Systematic Training 系统化训练 This book is about systematic and methodical 本书主张系统化循序渐进地训练。有些骑手 training. Some riders think of that as boring 觉得这很无趣,宁愿依靠本能训练。他们喜 and would rather work out spontaneously. They 欢根据屁股是否还愿意坐在车座上来决定如 prefer to train by the seats of their pants – no 何训练 ―― 没有计划,不用预先安排,最 planning, no forethought, and minimal structure. I won’t deny that it is possible to 简单的结构。我承认没有高度结构化的系统 become a good rider without a highly 和方法也有可能成为优秀骑手,我就认识不 structured system and method. I have known 少这样练出来的车手。但我也注意到同样是 many who have been successful with such an 这些人,当他们决定从事最高级别的竞争 approach. But I’ve also noticed that when these 时,他们往往都会增加他们训练的结构性。 same athletes decide to compete at the highest 结构化系统和方法对达到竞技高峰状态非常 levels, they nearly always increase the structure 重要,因为这种高峰状态不是碰巧发生的。 of their training. Structured systems and methods are critical for achieving peak performance. It won’t happen haphazardly. But it should also be pointed out that the 但同时也要指出,本书介绍的系统和方 system and methods described in this book are 法不是达到巅峰竞技状态的唯一方法。有很 not the only ones that will produce peak racing 多有效的训练系统,也有同样多的优秀教练 performance. There are many systems that 和顶尖运动员。没有一种所谓“正确的”方 work; there are as many as there are coaches and elite athletes. There is no one “right” way – 法 ―― 没有一种系统能保证让所有人都能 no system that will guarantee success for 成功。 everyone. There are also no secrets. You won’t find 另外也没有什么所谓“秘诀”。没有什 any magic workouts, miracle diet supplements, 么神奇的训练课,奇迹般效果的补给品,或 or all-purpose periodization schemes. 通用的周期性训练计划。本书讲的所有东西 Everything in this book is already known and 都是至少被一些骑手知晓并使用过的。教 used by at least some cyclists. No coach, athlete, or scientist has a winning secret – at 练,运动员和科学家都没有什么秘诀 ―― least not one that is legal. Many have 至少没有合法的秘诀。但很多人都有一个有 developed effective systems, however. 效的训练系统。有效的训练系统有广阔的综 2
  12. 12. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Effective training systems are marked by 合的组成部分,而不仅仅是训练课的集合。 comprehensively integrated components. They 有效计划的各个组成部分相互咬合,就象一 are not merely collections of workouts. All of 个复杂拼图的拼板一样。另外,在这背后还 the parts of effective programs fit together 有一个潜在的基本原理成为把各个部分连接 neatly, like the pieces of a complex jigsaw puzzle. Furthermore, there is an underlying 起来的纽带。一个不错的计划的各个部分都 philosophy that ties the parts together. All 是建立在这个原理基础上的。 aspects of a sound program are based on this philosophy. The Overtraining Phenomenon 过度训练现象 Is there a relationship between fatigue and 疲劳和速度之间有联系吗?有没有研究证 speed? Are there studies showing that if a rider 明,如果一个骑手在训练中非常的累并且经 gets really tired in training and does that often 常这样,他或她是否会骑得更快?长期地拖 enough, he or she will get faster? Does starting 着疲惫的双腿开始训练是否会在某种程度上 workouts with chronically tired legs somehow improve power and other aspects of race 增强力量或其他方面的身体素质? fitness? I pose these questions because so many 我提出这些问题是因为有太多的运动员 athletes tell me that there’s no improvement 跟我说除非他们在训练时始终感到有点迟 unless they feel at least a little sluggish all the 钝,否则就觉到训练毫无效果。但我问这些 time. But when I ask these same athletes why 运动员为什么还要训练时,回答总是:“为 they train the answer is always, “To get faster for racing.” Chronic fatigue is a strange way to 了比赛时更快”。慢性疲劳能使你骑得更 get faster. 快?真是太奇怪了。 Recently I did a Web search of the sports 最近我对体育科学杂志坐了一次网上调 science journals to see if any research has 查,想了解是否有研究表明疲劳和运动能力 found a positive relationship between fatigue 之间是否有积极的联系。在我所收到的全部 and athletic performance. Of the 2,036 studies I 2,036 项研究中,没有一项显示如果运动员 came across on these subjects, not a single one showed that an athlete performed better if he or 经常感到疲劳的话,他的运动能力能变地更 she got tired often enough. 好。 All of this leads me to believe that athletes 这些证据使我确信运动员让自己保持长 who keep themselves chronically tired and leg 期的疲累及双腿疲劳一定是犯了错误。或许 weary must be making a mistake. Either that or 他们有训练的秘密。但是我保持怀疑。他们 they have a training secret. But I doubt it. More 过度训练的原因可能是一种过度发展的骑行 that likely the reason for their excessive training is a combination of an overly 心态和强迫性的行为所结合。 developed work ethic and obsessive- compulsive behavior. In fact, there are a few athletes I have been 实际上,确实有一些运动员,由于上述 unable to train for this reason. When I allow 理由而使得我无法训练他们。当我为了进行 them to rest in order to go into a hard workout 下一个高强度训练而要求他们休息恢复的时 fresh, they interpret the lack of fatigue as a loss 候,他们却把身体不太疲劳解读为身体素质 3
  13. 13. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 of fitness and become paranoid. After a few 降低,因而变成了妄想狂。他们会自行加码 episodes of their putting in “extra” intervals, 搞些额外的间歇训练,或多骑几公里,几小 miles, hours, and workouts, we part company. 时。这样搞过几次之后,我们之间就不再来 My purpose in coaching is not to help 往了。我的辅导目的不是为了帮助那些有良 otherwise well-intentioned athletes keep their addiction going. I’d like to see them race faster, 好意愿的运动员继续他们的迷思,我喜欢看 not just be more tired. 见他们比赛时更快,而不是更疲倦。 On the other hand, I have trained many 另一方面,我曾经训练过许多各种运动 athletes in a variety of sports on a program of 项目的运动员,我制定的训练量往往比他们 less training than they were accustomed to. It’s 所习惯的训练量还低。当完全实施了实际的 amazing to see what they can accomplish once 训练目的后,他们所能达成的结果是非常令 they fully commit to their actual training purpose – to get faster. When riders go into 人吃惊的 ―― 变得更快速。当骑手们在进 hard workouts feeling fresh and snappy the 行艰苦的训练时仍感觉新鲜爽快时,他们会 speeds and power produced are exceptional. As 爆发出意想不到的速度和力量。这时肌肉, a result, the muscles, nervous system, 神经系统,心血管系统和供能系统都在适当 cardiovascular system, and energy systems are 压力下达到最佳状态。现在给他们几天的时 all optimally stressed. Once they have a few 间恢复来适应新的变化,然后再次进行相同 more days of recovery to allow for adaptation, 的训练。你猜怎么着 ―― 他们甚至比以前 we do it again. And guess what – they are even 更快了。 faster. Philosophy 训练哲学 The philosophy of training proposed in “The 《自行车训练圣经》所提出的训练哲学似乎 cyclist’s Training Bible” may seem unusual. I 不太寻常。但是我发现,如果它的原理被确 have found however, that if it is followed, 实遵循,运动员真的会进步的。我的训练哲 serious athletes improve. Here is my training 学就是:一个运动员应该为获得可持续的进 philosophy: An athlete should do the least amount of properly timed, specific training that 步而进行最少量里程数的,精心计划的和特 brings continual improvement. 定的训练。 The idea of limiting training is a scary 有节制训练的想法对某些人来说太可怕 thought for some. Many cyclists have become 了。许多骑手已经习惯于过度训练,并把这 accustomed to overtraining that is seems a 当做一种常态。这些选手象吸毒者一样沉迷 normal state. These racers are no less addicted 于这种状态。和瘾君子一样,长期过度训练 than drug users. As is the case with a drug addict, the chronically over trained athlete is 的运动员没法变得更出色,但是就是没有办 not getting any better but still can’t convince 法去说服自己做一些改变。 himself or herself to change. Read the philosophy statement again. 再读一遍我的训练哲学。注意了,如果 Notice that it doesn’t “train with the least 它不是以“以最少里程数来训练”,那另一 amount of miles.” Another way to state it might 种陈述方式,或许就是“聪明的善用你的训 be “use your training time wisely.” For those of 练时间”。对于有全职的工作,配偶,孩 us with full-time jobs, spouses, children, a home to maintain, and other responsibilities, 子,维系一个家庭和许许多多的责任的我们 using training time wisely is more than a 来说,善用训练时间不止是为了训练,而是 4
  14. 14. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 philosophy; it’s a necessity. 生活必需的。 What this means is that there are times 这就是说:进行较大量的训练是正确 when it’s right to do higher volume training, 的,但不一定要达到可能的最大量。这通常 but not necessarily the highest possible. This is 发生在训练的基础期(一般的准备阶段)。但 usually in the Base (general preparation) period 同时有时候大量的训练并不聪明,而是应该 of training. There are also times when high volume is not wise, but faster, more race- 把重点放在更快的速度,更多的针对比赛的 specific training is right. These are the Build 训练上。这发生在发展期和高峰期(特殊的准 and Peak (specific preparation) periods. 备项目)。 (周期在第 7 章中有解释.) (Periods are explained in Chapter 7.) While it seems so simple, there are many 看上去似乎如此简单,但却有很多人无 who can’t seem to get it right. They put in lots 法正确的实施它。比如,当他们应该设法提 of miles when they should be trying to get 高速度时,他们却增加许多骑行的里程数。 faster. And when they should be building a 或者当他们应该建立身体素质基础时,他们 base of general fitness, they’re going fast – usually in group hammer sessions. 却骑的非常的快 ―― 通常发生在团队训练 的时候。 So what do you use to gauge your 因此你如何来评估你的进步呢?―― 以 progress – how tired you are or how fast you 你有多累或是以你有多快?如果是前者的话 are? If it’s the former you’re doomed to a 你将注定要成为一个二流车手。一旦你能领 career of less-than-stellar racing. Once you 悟到疲劳会阻碍你的速度并且做出必要的改 figure out that fatigue gets in the way of getting faster and you make the necessary changes, 变,你将开始起飞。 you’ll be flying. The 10 commandments of 训练“十诫” Training To help you better understand this training 为了帮助你更好理解我的训练哲学,我将它 philosophy I have broken it down into the “10 细分为下列的训练“十诫”。通过把这些指 Commandments of Training.” By incorporating 导方针融入你的思想及训练中,你将学会如 each of these guidelines into your thinking and 何遵循这些原理并且从你投入的时间中获得 training, you’ll be following this philosophy and getting a better return on your time 更多的回报。不管你的年龄或者经验如何, invested. Your results will also improve 你都会获得进步。 regardless of your age or experience. Commandment 1 – Train Moderately 诫律 1 ―― 适度地训练 Your body had limits when it comes to 对于耐力,速度和力量,你的身体是有极限 endurance, speed, and strength. Don’t try too 的。不要经常去尝试达到这些极限。恰恰相 often to find them. Instead, train within those 反,在大部分的时间里你要在这些极限内训 limits most of the time. Finish most workout 练。在大多数的高强度训练完成后,你都应 feeling like you could have done more. It may 该感觉好像还有余地尚未发挥。这可能意味 5
  15. 15. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 mean stopping a session earlier than planned. 着比计划中的训练周期更早地停止――这没 That’s okay. Do not always try to finish 关系,不要总是训练到力竭。 exhausted. Muscles will only contract forcefully a 肌肉在强力收缩一定次数之后将无法再 certain number of times before they refuse to 继续强力收缩。当糖原――体内储存的碳水 pull hard again. When glycogen, the body’s 化合物能量――慢慢耗尽时,无论多强的意 storage form of carbohydrate energy, begins go 志力都无法补充身体所缺乏的能量的。减速 run low, no amount of willpower can fuel the body. Slowing down is the only option. If such 是唯一的选择。如果频繁且长期地接近这种 limits are approached frequently and over a 身体极限,身体将很难适应这种压力,于是 long enough period of time, the body’s ability 就会需要更多的时间来恢复,这样训练的连 to adapt is exceeded, recovery is greatly 贯性将会被打断。 delayed, and training consistency is interrupted. The biggest mistake of most athletes is to 大多数运动员所犯的最大错误就是:在 make the easy days too hard, so when it comes 该轻松的时候太刻苦,结果到真正的刻苦训 time for a hard training day, they can’t go hard 练日来临时,他们又无法达到所要求的强 enough. This leads to mediocre training, 度。这将导致平庸的训练,身体素质和成 fitness, and performance. The higher your fitness lever, the greater the difference between 绩。你的身体素质越高,在刻苦日和轻松日 the intensities of hard and easy days. 的训练强度的差别就越明显。 Many cyclists also think that pushing hard 很多骑手也都认为不停地逼迫自己锻炼 all the time will make them tough. They 能够变得更强壮。他们相信意志力和坚强的 believe that willpower and strength of character 个性能战胜自然并且加速身体细胞的改变。 can overcome nature and speed up their body’s 千万别去尝试――答案几乎不可能是更刻苦 cellular changes. Don’t try it – more hard training is seldom the answer. An organism 的训练。生物体最适应的是压力慢慢地提高 adapts best when stresses are slightly increased. 的状况。这就是为什么你会经常听到这样的 That’s why you’ve often heard the admonition 警告:那就是周与周之间增加的训练量不能 to increase training volume by no more than 10 超过百分之十――即使这个增量对某些人来 percent from week to week. Even this may be 说也可能太高了。 high for some. By progressing carefully, especially with 小心地慢慢加码 ―― 尤其是在强度 intensity, you’ll gradually get stronger and 上 ―― 能使你逐渐变得更强壮,并且空出 there will be time and energy for other pursuits 时间和体力去追求生活中其他乐趣。与总是 in life. An athlete who enjoys training will get 在过度训练的边缘上挣扎的人相比,享受训 far more benefits from it than one who is always on the edge of overtraining. 练的运动员能获得更多的回报。 The self-coached cyclist must learn to 自我指导的骑手必须学会客观地思考, think objectively and unemotionally. It should 不能感情用事。这就好比有两个“你”―― be as if you are two people – one is the rider 一个是“骑手”的你,而另一个则是“教 and the other is the coach. The coach must be 练”的你。“教练”必须负责任:当“骑 in charge. When the rider says, “Do More,” the coach should question whether that’s wise. 手”说“再多骑一些”时,“教练”要质疑 Doubt is a good enough reason to discontinue 这么做是否明智。怀疑是让训练停下来的好 the session. When it doubt – leave it out. 理由。当怀疑产生时 ―― 就停止吧。 6
  16. 16. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Do every workout conservatively, but with 每次高强度训练时都以自信的态度有所 a cocky attitude. When the coach stops the hill 保留。当教练在适当的时间要求停止爬坡训 repeats as just the right time, and the rider says, 练,而骑手说“我还能再来几次” 时,这种 “I could have done more,” stopping is not a 停止不是失败――而是一种胜利。 loss – It’s a victory. Commandment 2 – Train consistently 诫律 2 ―― 连贯地训练 The human body thrives on routine. Develop a 人体在重复性的训练中逐渐茁壮,所以需要 training pattern that stays mostly the same from 制定一种在周与周之间内容大致相同的训练 week to week – regular activity brings positive 模式――因为有规律的活动会带来正面的改 change. This does not mean do the same 变。这并不说每天或每周都做相同的训练, workout every day, week after week. Variety also promotes growth. Later in this book you’ll 变化也能带来提升。在本书以后章节中你会 see that there are actually slight changes being 看到:实际上在整个训练年度中贯穿着细微 made throughout the training year. Some of the 的变化,有些改变似乎微不足道。你或许无 changes are seemingly minor. You may not 法察觉它们,比如在基础期每周训练中增加 even be aware of them, as when an extra hour 一小时的训练时间。 is added to the training week during the base- building period. Breaks in consistency usually result from 训练的连贯性被打破,通常是因为无法 not following the Moderation Commandment. 遵守“适度训练”的诫律。过分高强度的训 Overdoing a workout or week of training is 练或训练周可能会引起过度的疲劳,生病, likely to cause excessive fatigue, illness, 力竭或者受伤。身体素质是不会停滞的―― burnout, or injury. Fitness is not stagnant – you’re either getting better or getting worse all 你要么变得更强,要么变得更弱。经常错过 the time. Frequently missing workouts mean a 高强度训练代表体能的退步。这并不是意味 loss of fitness. This doesn’t mean, however, 着,你必须在生病时照样做高强度训练。经 you should work out when ill. There are times 常休息是必要的。例如,当下列情况发生时 when breaks are necessary. For example, what 你会如何选择: choice do you typically make when you: • Feel tired, but have a hard workout • 感到疲倦,但按计划却要做高强度训 planned? 练? • Are afraid of losing fitness while taking • 按计划休息但却害怕会引起身体素质退 time off even though you feel wasted? 步,即使你感到这是浪费时间? • Believe your competition is putting in more • 相信你的竞争对手正投入比你更多的训 training time than you? 练时间? • Feel like your training partners are riding too fast? • 感到你的训练伙伴怎么骑得这么快? • Sense there is only one interval left in you? • 间隔训练时感觉怎么还没到最后一次间 • Think you could do more, but aren’t sure? 隔啊? • Have a “bad” race? • 感觉还能骑更久,但又不确定? • Seem to have hit a plateau or even lost • 比赛感觉太糟了? fitness? • 遭遇低谷期甚至身体体质降低? If your personal philosophy is “more is 如果你的训练哲学是“多多益善”,那么你 better,” you will answer there questions 7
  17. 17. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 differently than if it is “do the least amount of 对以上问题的回答将会与那些持“通过最少 properly timed, specific training that brings 量里程数的,精心计划的和特定的训练来达 continual improvement.” Do you see the 到持续的进步”的人大相径庭。你看到这种 difference? 差别了吗? This is not to say that you shouldn’t do 这并不是说你不应该去做艰苦的高强度 hard workouts or that it isn’t necessary to push 锻炼,或者偶尔达到体能的极限并体验极度 the limits on occasion and experience fatigue as 的疲劳。很显然,如果你的目标是接近你骑 a result. It’s obvious that if coming close to 行能力的极限,那么你必须经常面对并战胜 your riding potential is your goal, then you must often face and conquer training 训练的挑战。问题是你不知道什么时候该退 challenges. The problem arises when you don’t 却,什么时候该休息,什么时候该调整计 know when to back off, when to rest, and when 划。“多多益善”将不可避免地导致力竭、 to do less than planned. The inevitable 过度训练、生病和受伤,由此而导致的长期 consequences of “more is better” are burnout, 或频繁的停训又进一步导致身体素质变差, overtraining, illness, and injury. Extended or 而重建身体素质又必须回到前期的,较低级 frequent downtime due to such problems 别的训练阶段。所以吃过这种苦头并总结出 inevitably results in a loss of fitness and the 规律的车手很少会运动过程中冲击他们的潜 need to rebuild by returning to previous, lower levels of training. Riders who experience these 能极限了。 problems with some regularity seldom achieve their potential in the sport. Training consistently, not extremely, is the 连贯地,而不是极端地训练,是通往你 route to the highest possible fitness and your 的最好身体素质和终极比赛状态的大道。而 ultimate racing performances. The key to 连贯性的关键是适度和休息。这或许不是你 consistency is moderation and rest. That may 想从本书中看到的有关训练的内容,但是请 not be what your want to hear about in a book on training, but read on to better understand 继续阅读并体会为什么连贯性能使你骑得更 how consistency will make you faster. 快。 Commandment 3 – Get adequate Rest 诫律 3 ――充分地休息 It’s during rest that the body adapts to the 身体只有通过休息才能适应训练的压力并且 stresses of training and grows stronger. 变得更强壮。没有休息就没有进步。当训练 Without rest there’s no improvement. As the 的强度增加时,对休息的需要也就更殷切。 stress of training increases, the need for rest 大多数的车手都只是口头上赞成这条诫律; also accumulates. Most cyclists pay lip service to this commandment; they understand it 理智上接受,但感情上不接受。这是一条被 intellectually, but not emotionally. It is the 违反地最广泛的指导方针。没有足够的休 most widely violated guideline. You will not 息,你将无法进步。 improve without adequate rest. What’s the first aspect of daily life most 因为时间所迫和为了配合训练的需要, athletes cut back on when they are pressed for 大多数运动员会优先削减哪一部分的日常生 time and feel the need to fit in a workout? The 活时间呢?答案就是睡眠。他们提早起床或 answer is sleep. They get up earlier or go to 者很晚才睡觉,从而为每天的行程中塞进更 bed later in order to wedge more into each day. 多的东西。 8
  18. 18. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 The problem with this way of “creating” 这种“节约”时间的办法的问题是它减 time is that it compromises recovery and 少了恢复和适应的时间。只有在休息尤其是 adaptation. It’s during rest, especially sleep, 睡觉时,身体才会自行修补并且变得更强 when the body mends and grows stronger. 壮,睡觉时人体才会分泌生长激素。如果睡 While we sleep, human growth hormone is released in spurts. If our time spent snoozing is 觉或打盹的时间被缩短了,我们将花更长的 shortened, it takes us longer to recover and our 时间去恢复,这样训练的连贯性就会受影 consistency in training suffers. Glycogen stores 响;如果高强度训练之间的休息期糖原无法 aren’t fully replenished between workouts, 充分补充,经常这样就会导致耐力水平的衰 leading to decayed endurance performance 退;如果损坏的细胞需要更长的时间复原, over several days. Damaged cells take longer to 这就提高运动伤害及生病的风险;如果不理 heal, raising the risk of injury and illness. If the 会睡眠时间的缩短而依旧保持高训练量,过 training workload remains high despite 度训练就将成为一种真正的威胁,力竭也会 decreased sleep time, overtraining becomes a real threat. Burnout is waiting just around the 正在附近等着你。大多数运动员每天需要 7 corner. Most athletes need seven to ten hours of 到 10 个小时的睡眠。对专业运动员来说, sleep daily. Professionals, with few other 相比于训练的不同要求,在睡眠方面几乎没 demands on their time than training, usually 有什么区别,一般来说会通过包括打盹,午 include naps to get their daily dose. The rest of 睡等方式来达到每天要求的睡眠时间,我们 us need to get to bed early every night. The 则需要每天早点上床。你的年纪越小,你就 younger you are, the more rest you need. Junior 需要越多的休息。年轻的车手每天应该睡眠 riders should be sleeping nine to ten hours 九到十个小时。 daily. Refer back to Table 1.1, Suggested Daily 参考前面的表 1.1 对日常活动的建议, routines, to determine a daily schedule that will 确定一张能保证你每天得到足够休息的日程 ensure you get adequate rest every day. Until 表。在你建立这张日程表之前,你都不是在 you establish a schedule, you’re not really 真正地训练 ―― 而只是在玩车。 training – you’re playing on a bike. AND TO ALL A GOOD NIGHT 愿所有的人做个好梦 Quality of sleep may be improved by: 睡眠的质量可通过下列方式改善: • Going to bed at a regular time every night, • 每天晚上在规定的时间上床睡觉,包括在比 including the night before races 赛的前一晚 • Darkening the room in the last hour before • 在就寝前一个小时把房间变暗,并通过阅读 bedtime and narrowing your focus by reading 或轻声交谈来缩小你的注意力 or engaging in light conversation • 睡房要黑暗,通风良好,温度最好在摄氏 16 • Sleeping in a dark, well-ventilated room that is 60 to 64 degrees Fahrenheit (16 to 18 degrees 度到 18 度之间。 Celsius) • 在睡前洗个温水澡 • Taking a warm bath before bed • 逐步地收缩和放松肌肉,以达到全身性的放 • Progressively contracting and relaxing muscles 松 to induce total body relaxation • 在上床睡觉前几个小时,避免喝咖啡和茶之 • Avoiding stimulants such as coffee and tea in 类刺激性的饮料 the last several hours before going to bed • 睡觉前禁止喝酒(干扰睡眠模式) • Restricting alcohol (which interferes with sleep patterns) prior to retiring Sidebar 2.1 工具栏 2.1 9
  19. 19. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Commandment 4 – Train with a plan 诫律 4――有计划地训练 This is fundamental to improvement in almost 这几乎是生活中任何改变现状的努力的基 any endeavor of life, yet few self-trained 础,然而自我训练的运动员却很少去做。我 athletes do it. Sometimes I find riders who use 常常发现有骑手从杂志上找到个看上去不错 a sound plan from a magazine, but as soon as a 的训练计划然后照着实施,但当问题出现 new issue comes out, they abandon the old plan and take up a new one. Most people will 时,他们就放弃原来的计划转而实施另一个 improve if they follow a plan – any plan. It can 新的计划。其实不管是什么计划,只要始终 be of poor design, yet still work. Just don’t 贯彻如一,大多数人都会获得进步。这个计 change it. 划可能设计很糟糕,但它仍然有效,只是千 万别变来变去。 This book is all about planning. In Part 4 这本书讲的全是计划。在第 4 部分你将 you will learn about annual training plans and 学到年度训练计划和每周例行训练。这一部 weekly scheduling routines. This is the section 分是你年复一年地为下个赛季制定计划时都 you will come back to year after year as you 需要复习和参照的。 plan for the next season. Realize that all plans can be changed. 你必须意识到所有的计划都是活的,你 Yours will not be chiseled into stone. It takes 的计划也一样不是板上钉钉。训练计划必须 some flexibility to cope with the many factors 包含一些弹性以应付众多的妨碍因素。这些 that will get in your way. These may include a 可能包括重感冒,加班,意外的旅行,或者 bad cold, overtime at work, unexpected travel, or a visit from Aunt Jeanne. I have yet to coach 亲戚的拜访。我所训练过的运动员没有一个 an athlete who didn’t have something interfere 能够不受任何事情的干扰来完成计划的。期 with the plan. Expect it, but don’t be upset. 待归期待,但是不要失望。顺势而为并且调 Roll with the punches and change the plan to fit 整计划以适应新的形势。 the new situation. Commandment 5 – Train with Groups 诫律 5――不要经常跟团队训练 Infrequently There’s a real advantage to working out with 有时与别人一起训练确实有好处。团队骑行 others – sometimes. Pack riding develops 可以锻炼控车技术,还能体验比赛时的感 handling skills, provides experience with race 觉,时间也过得飞快。但如果经常这样的 dynamics and makes the time go faster. But all 话,团队会让你总是骑得太快,而这时你也 too often, the group will cause you to ride fast when you would be best served by a slow, easy 许最需要慢速的,轻松的恢复性骑行。而另 recovery ride. At other times, you will need to 外一些时候,你也许需要骑比团队所确定的 go longer or shorter than what the group 里程数更长或者更短的距离。团队式的训练 decides to ride. Group workouts too often 经常在最不合适的时候把训练变成计划外的 degenerate into unstructured races at the most 比赛。 inopportune times. For the winter base-building period, find a 在冬天的基础期,找一个车速舒适的团 group that rides at a comfortable pace. During 队一起骑。在春天的发展期,与那些在比赛 the spring intensity-building period, ride with a 中能挑战你的骑行速度的团队一起骑。聪明 group that will challenge you to ride fast, just 10
  20. 20. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 as when racing. Smart and structured group 且有组织的车队是很难找的。你可能需要为 rides are hard to find. You may need to create 此建立你自己的圈子。离那些大团队远点, your own. Stay away from big packs that take 他们占据整个道路并且很不安全。你只是想 over the road and are unsafe. You want to get 骑的更快而不是想找死。当团队能帮助你时 faster, not get killed. Use groups when they can help you. Otherwise, avoid them. 才使用他们,否则的话就避开他们。 Commandment 6 – Plan to peak 诫律 6―― 有计划地到达高峰期 Your season plan should bring you to your 你的赛季计划应该让你在最重要的赛事时达 peak for the most important events. I call these 到高峰期。我称之为“A”级赛事。“B” “A” races. The “B” races are important too, but 级赛事也很重要,但是你用不着为了这些赛 you will not taper and peak for these, just rest 事调整训练量从而让自己达到高峰期,在赛 for three to four days before. “C” races are tune-ups to get you ready for the A and B 前休息 3-4 天即可。而“C”级赛事则只是 races. A smart rider will use these low-priority 为“A”和“B”级赛事调整最佳状态的一 races for experience, or to practice pacing, or 些插曲,聪明的骑手会利用这些低优先级比 as a time trial to gauge fitness. If all races are 赛来积累经验,练习节奏,或者把它当作评 A-lever priority, don’t expect much for season 估体质的一次个人计时赛。如果把所有的赛 results. 事都视为“A”级,那就别指望赛季能有好 成绩了。 This book will show you how to peak for 这本书将告诉你如何在一个赛季中为 A A races two or more times in a season. Each 级赛事达到两次或更多次高峰期。每次高峰 peak may last for up to a couple of weeks. You 期大约可持续几个星期。在两个高峰期之间 will still race between peaks, but the emphasis 的阶段你仍可以比赛,但重点放在重建耐 will be on re-establishing endurance, force, and speed skills to prepare for the next peak. 力,力量和速度技巧上,从而为下一个高峰 期作好准备。 Commandment 7 – Improve Weaknesses 诫律 7――改进弱项 What do riders with great endurance, but not 一个拥有极佳耐力但速度不快的骑手,最常 much speed, do the most of? You guessed it – 做的什么?你猜对了――是耐力训练。爬坡 endurance work. What do good climbers like to 好手最喜欢做什么?毫无悬念,他们喜欢爬 do? Not surprisingly, they like to train in the 山。大多数骑手在他们已经很强的强项上花 hills. Most cyclists spend too much time working on what they’re already good at. 了太多时间。那么什么才是你最弱的弱项? What’s your weakest area? Ask your training 如果你还不知道就问一下你的队友,我敢打 partners if you don’t know. I’ll bet they do. 赌他们一定知道。然后你就要在这些弱项上 Then spend more time on that area. The 多花些时间。《自行车训练圣经》会帮助你 cyclist’s Training Bible will help identify your 找出弱项并且教你怎样改进它们。了解你的 weaknesses and teach you how to improve 限制因素是让你在比赛中成功的关键,所以 them. Understanding your “limiters” is critical 请特别留意书中关于这方面的内容。 to your success in racing. Pay close attention whenever you run across that term here. 11
  21. 21. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Commandment 8 – Trust Your Training 诫律 8――相信你的训练 Few of us trust our training when it comes time 每当比赛临近时,很少有人对自己的训练有 to race. There’s a great fear as the big race 自信。当大型比赛临近时,我们就感到还有 approaches that we haven’t done enough, so we 很多事没做好的巨大恐惧,然后就拼命训练 train right up to race day. I’ve seen people the 直到比赛那天。我看到过有人在一场重要比 day before an important race go out for a long ride or compete in a hard race because they 赛的前一天出去做长距离骑行,或参加一场 think it will help. It takes 10 to 21 days of 艰苦的比赛,因为他们觉得这样对比赛有帮 reduced workload for the human body to be 助。人体需要 10 到 21 天的逐渐降低训练量 fully ready to race, depending on how long and 的过程来为比赛完全做好准备,具体时间取 hard the training has been. Cut back before the 决于训练的时间及强度。在大赛前减少训练 big races, and you’ll do better. Trust me. 量,肯定对你有好处。相信我。 Commandment 9 – Listen to Your body 诫律 9――听从你的身体 In the early 1990s after the fall of the Berlin 20 世纪 90 年代初,在柏林墙倒塌之后,我 Wall, I attended a talk by the former head of 参加了一次与东德体育学院的前领导的会 the East German Sports Institute. After 谈。他承认东德运动员确实使用过违禁药 conceding that East German athletes had 物,但他认为这只是造就他们惊人的成功的 indeed used illegal drugs, which he felt was a minor aspect of their remarkable success, he 次要方面。他接着解释了他所认定的收获大 went on to explain what he saw as the real 批奥运会奖牌的真正原因。他描述了那些杰 reason for their great number of Olympic 出运动员在宿舍中的生活规律。每天早上, medals. He described how elite athletes lived 运动员与一组专家会面 ――例如一名运动项 regulated lives in dormitories. Every morning, 目的教练,一位生理学家,一位医生或者护 each athlete met with a group of experts – an 士,再加一个运动心理学家。这个小组检查 event coach, a physiologist, a doctor or nurse, 运动员的状态是否适合当天的训练,并根据 and a sports psychologist, for example. The 情况对训练计划做必要的调整。实际上,他 group checked the athlete’s readiness to train that day and made adjustments as necessary to 们是倾听运动员的身体正在说什么。运动员 the schedule. In effect, they were listening to 只训练到他们当天的身体所能经受得住的强 what the athlete’s body was saying. The athlete 度,仅此而已。 trained only to the level they could tolerate that day. Nothing more. It could be nice if each of us could afford 如果我们每个人都能负担得起这样的照 such attention. We can’t, so we must learn to 料,那该多好啊。为其不能,所以我们必须 listen to our bodies for ourselves. If you listen 学会倾听自己的身体。如果你听从了身体所 to what the body is saying, you’ll train smarter 说的话,你的训练会变得更聪明并且会让你 and get faster. Cyclists who train smart always beat athletes who train hard. The cyclist’s 骑得更快。聪明训练的骑手总是能击败埋头 Training Bible will teach you how to hear what 苦练的骑手。《自行车训练圣经》会教你怎 your body is saying every day – and train 样倾听你的身体――以及如何聪明地训练。 smart. 12
  22. 22. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Commandment 10 – Commit to Goals 诫律 10――对目标的承诺 If you want to race father, faster, and stronger 如果你想要在这个赛季的比赛中骑得更远, this season you need to train differently and 更快,更有力,那么你也许需要改变训练方 may even need to make changes in you 式甚至于改变生活方式。有什么可能阻止你 lifestyle. What could be holding you back? Is it 呢?睡眠不足吗?那么也许你可以更早一点 too little sleep? Maybe you need to go to bed earlier. Or perhaps you eat too much junk food. 上床睡觉;或者也许你吃了太多垃圾食品? You may benefit from putting in more time in 或许在这个冬季,你可以在健身房投入更多 the weight room during the winter to build 的时间从而练就更强的肌肉力量。或许你的 greater force. Maybe your training partners are 训练伙伴正在拖你的后腿? holding you back. After you set your goals in a later chapter, 在以后章节里,当你确定目标之后,重 take a look at them and determine how they 温一下并且确定他们怎样与你的生活方式和 relate to your lifestyle and training. Determine 训练相关联。如果这些变化是必须的,要确 that if change is needed, you can do it. Only 信你能做的到。只有你自己能控制你的比 you can control how well you race. It’s time to put up. 赛。是付诸实施的时候了。 Striving for peak performance is a 24- 为达到运动能力的高峰所作的努力是件 hour-a-day, 365-day-a-year task. Racing at the 每天 24 个小时,每年 365 天的任务。在尽 highest possible level demands a full-time 可能高水平的赛事中比赛需要全天候的承 commitment that is not just training-related. 诺,而不只是与训练相关的事。目标越高, The higher the goals, the more life must revolve around eating, sleeping, and working 日常生活就越多地以吃,睡,和高强度训练 out. Eating nutritious food fuels the body for 为中心。吃营养丰富的食物能够补充身体在 training and helps speed recovery by 训练中损耗的能量和营养储备,并为建立更 replenishing depletes energy and nutrient stores 强壮的身体组织提供原料,从而帮助身体快 and by providing the building blocks for a 速恢复。睡眠与高强度训练有机结合能够提 stronger body. Sleeping and working out have 高身体素质。 a synergistic effect on fitness. Every day you have lifestyle choices to 每天你都面临关于饮食,睡眠及其他生 make about diet, sleep, and other physical and 理和精神活动的生活方式的选择,你所做的 mental activities. The decisions you make, 这些选择,多半是不加思索的,但都会对你 often without even thinking, will impact how 的骑行能力产生影响。 well you ride. A fully committed rider is a student of the 一个对承诺完全负责的骑手总是在学习 sport. Read everything you can get your hands 运动方面的知识。阅读所有能拿到手的东 on. Talk with coaches, trainers, athletes, 西,与教练,训练师,运动员,机械师,比 mechanics, race officials, sales-people, and 赛官员,推销商以及所有可能拥有独特观点 anyone else who may have a unique perspective. Ask questions, but be a bit 的人交谈。虚心请教,但都保持一点怀疑。 skeptical. If you’re to grow as an athlete, 如果你要成为一名运动员,变化是必须的, change is necessary. Other knowledgeable 这些有见地的人们经常是你变化的来源。 people are often the sources for this change. 13
  23. 23. The Cyclist’s Training Bible (3rd edition) 自行车训练圣经(第三版) Chapter 2 SMART TRAINING 第 2 章 聪明地训练 Training to improve includes keeping a 在训练中保持一本训练日志,记录高强 training log. Record workout details, 度训练的细节,努力的感受,身体压力的信 perceptions of effort, stress signals, race results 号,比赛结果和分析,身体素质增加或者减 and analyses, signs of increasing or decreasing 退的迹象,装备的改变,以及其它所有对每 fitness, equipment changes, and anything else that describes your daily experience. It may all 日经历的描述。在将来这些记录都可能会派 prove helpful down the road. Most athletes also 上用场的。很多运动员都发现保持训练日志 find that keeping a log provides them with a 能帮助他们更敏锐地抓住训练重点,并更迅 sharper training focus and more rapid growth 速地对准他们的目标来发展。 toward their goals. Each of us has a comfortable level of 我们每个人对承诺都有合适的实现程 commitment. There are times when we need to 度。有时候我们需要把我们“想要做的”和 check our “want to” against our “have to.” “必须做的”相对照。工作,家庭和其他责 Jobs, families, and other responsibilities cannot 任不能因为骑车而被放弃,激情必须有所节 be forsaken just to ride a bike. Passion must be restrained or we’ll quickly alienate others who 制,否则我们很快就会疏远那些不具有同样 aren’t equally zealous – we will become 热忱的人们――我们将变成“只知骑车的傻 “cycling bums.” 子”。 14

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