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  1. 1. Speedways of Change: steering collaborative learning outcomes in diverse communities. Rhonda Diffey
  2. 2. Community collections and school archives contain objects, oral histories, artworks and photographs embedded with layers of historical discourse that provide students with opportunities to question, reflect on and revalue understandings of our identity and place in society. Integration of items from these archives into curriculum programs provides a resource that surprises and inspires. These are essential pre-requisites of student engagement and inquiry that can result in unique learning outcomes. ‘ We are a community of ‘Learners’ and learning is fun! Learning is a process of personal change of comparing new experiences with old understandings and of constructing new understandings that replace the old in their usefulness.’ Donald Pahlman 2006 ‘ Learning is no longer a passive experience but an active, dynamic and developmental process.’ R.L.Russell 2006
  3. 3. To achieve this we need to As educators we are always asking ourselves How can we connect with our students? How can we engage them in good learning experiences, in deep learning? Experiential Learning activities involving students engaging with real objects prompts active questioning to feed curiosity about a past time that previously Moving beyond the provision of information that you ‘need’ to know.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Examples presented include: </li></ul><ul><li>Wangaratta High School archive development and curriculum activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Government cultural heritage exhibitions schools programs in the City of Greater Dandenong. </li></ul><ul><li>- ‘Face to Face’ - Springvale Stories. </li></ul><ul><li>- ‘Made by the Hands of Man’ </li></ul><ul><li>- ‘Pages of Wisdom’. </li></ul><ul><li>The City of Greater Dandenong is large cosmopolitan hub consisting of many new and emerging diverse communities. A community where the nexus of change has provided opportunities for multiple historical perspectives; where a sharing of understandings of the many layers of meaning through historical links and people’s stories have created positive community learning outcomes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Example 1: Wangaratta High School
  6. 6. <ul><li>The largest State Regional Secondary School in North East Victoria, 245km from Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Is undergoing a rebuilding program that will result in a 5 Star environmentally sustainable school </li></ul><ul><li>Current student population is in excess of 1500 students. </li></ul>2005
  7. 7. Wangaratta Agricultural High School 1909 Chisholm St Wangaratta <ul><li>Opened in 1909 in Chisholm St Wangaratta with an enrolment of 19 students </li></ul><ul><li>Two courses were offered – Agriculture Course and the Continuation Course </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1920’s the Agriculture course closed and the school became known as Wangaratta High School </li></ul><ul><li>In 1960 Wangaratta High School relocated from Chisholm St Wangaratta to the present day site in Edwards St. </li></ul>Clearing the Land for the Agricultural High School. Circa1909
  8. 8. The Wangaratta High School is a POD for the Public Record Office of Victoria Accordion Band 1945 Riding to school 1938 Sloyd class Circa 1916
  9. 9. The Wangaratta High School Archive consists of the following sub-collections: <ul><li>Photographs : All decades - approximately 3000, B/W, colour photographs and slide transparencies </li></ul><ul><li>War Service : Photographs of former students and staff, uniforms, memorabilia including trench art, uniforms, correspondence (copies of war letters home) and a fig tree </li></ul><ul><li>Sport memorabilia: Trophies, certificates, photographs, films, uniforms and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Oral History recordings: 90 Interviews of former students and staff </li></ul><ul><li>DVD’s and Videos : Performance :plays, debates, annual talent quest, presentations, staff development and commemorative occasions </li></ul><ul><li>Uniforms: Incomplete uniform sub-collection of class and sport uniforms including shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Staff : Documents, photographs, awards and certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Time capsule: 1984 ‘Cylinder of 1000 messages’ contents and 2009 Time capsule and contents </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Wangaratta High School Archive consists of the following sub-collections: <ul><li>Music: Hall of Fame Honour Board and citations, ‘Cool Skools’ CD’s, Band Photographs and sound equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Former student / staff contact database: Approx 4000 plus names </li></ul><ul><li>Former staff/ student ‘ Where are they now information’ – Collected during 2008 – 2009 from Twitter and Facebook for the Centenary Book publication </li></ul><ul><li>School book publications (1975, 1984, 1999 and 2009), School Year magazines and weekly newsletters : Incomplete set housed in the school library </li></ul><ul><li>Art – Annual Art / Photography and multimedia Acquisitive Student Award . Artworks are located throughout the school buildings. Circa 1975 ongoing. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Wangaratta High School archive display and storage
  12. 12. Archival management and collection preparation for curriculum integration: <ul><li>Inventory of whole collection : Database of thematic sub-collections </li></ul><ul><li>Grant Applications: PRO Grant support for conservation storage materials </li></ul><ul><li>Policy development and management forms </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs: catalogued under decades and then into thematic areas e.g. staff, sport, class groups etc. Scanning 70% complete and 3 copies of photograph including A3 if suitable for class use </li></ul>Computer Bequest 1984 Staff strike 1975 Exams 1975
  13. 13. <ul><li>Oral History Interviews: Transfer of cassette interviews onto MP3 sound files. Access available on library computers – Filed under decade year student access read only and staff access available for classroom use </li></ul><ul><li>School Year Book index: Index and topic list for school year books available for student research. </li></ul><ul><li>War service: Copies of documents and photographs for student research. Ongoing display rotation and monitoring of sub -collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Video/DVD : Conversion from video to DVD ongoing. Two copies of DVD’s –one for classroom use. Associated computer/ technology equipment sub – collection reviewed annually. </li></ul>Archival management and collection preparation for curriculum integration:
  14. 14. <ul><li>Sport: Ongoing liaison with sports department with rotation of display and updates of information on individual sporting achievements and participation. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy of donation of item of significance from former student/staff sport ‘star’ for display. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniforms : Ongoing review and rotation with six month ‘rest’ box time. Duplicate uniforms are available for classroom handling and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Time Capsule : 1984 ‘Cylinder of 1000 messages’ was unearthed in 2009 for the Wangaratta High School Centenary. Conservation work on the contents. All messages were photocopied and now copy is available for research and classroom use. Indexing of students names completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Music: Annual induction of former student performers into the Hall of Fame. Annual band photographs added to displays. </li></ul>Archival management and collection preparation for curriculum integration:
  15. 15. <ul><li>In the Classroom </li></ul>
  16. 16. Educating generation Y <ul><li>How do we engage this generation of students? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatism </li></ul><ul><li>Preference </li></ul>What most influences Generation Y?
  18. 18. How can we better communicate with Generation Y? <ul><li>Real </li></ul><ul><li>Raw </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul>
  19. 19. Victorian Essential Learning Standards VELS) Disciplinary learning The Humanities - History <ul><li>Level 5 History - Years 7 and 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Level 6 History - Years 9 and 10 </li></ul>Two dimensions in the History domain Historical knowledge and understanding Historical reasoning and interpretation
  20. 20. <ul><li>Students learn how to evaluate historical sources for </li></ul><ul><li>meaning </li></ul><ul><li>context </li></ul><ul><li>point of view / perspective </li></ul><ul><li>values </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>completeness and reliability </li></ul>Historical reasoning and interpretation
  21. 21. Generation Y and the VELS <ul><li>So how do we make VELS accessible and meaningful to Generation Y students? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Keep it real <ul><li>Students work with authentic sources from a significant collection </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hands on <ul><li>Active and spontaneous, uncovering, searching, handling </li></ul>
  24. 24. Skill based <ul><li>Students empowered by having responsibility for handling the artifacts </li></ul>
  25. 25. Make it relevant <ul><li>Meaningful connection with their own lives </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar names and places </li></ul>
  26. 26. Work in groups <ul><li>Social relationships with peers </li></ul>
  27. 27. Make it exciting <ul><li>Detective work, a mystery to be solved, </li></ul><ul><li>a treasure trove to be uncovered </li></ul>
  28. 28. Using a tangible heritage <ul><li>A huge variety of objects to look at and handle, listen to and even smell...oral histories, music, photographs, clothes, newspaper cuttings, time capsule items </li></ul>
  29. 29. Immediate <ul><li>Not initially tied to an assessment task </li></ul><ul><li>Time to explore and observe allows questions to emerge </li></ul>
  30. 30. Choice <ul><li>Themed boxes appeal to different interests </li></ul><ul><li>and a range of abilities </li></ul>
  31. 31. Using collection boxes from the archive <ul><li>authentic </li></ul><ul><li>hands on </li></ul><ul><li>skill based </li></ul><ul><li>relevant </li></ul><ul><li>social </li></ul><ul><li>exciting </li></ul><ul><li>tangible </li></ul><ul><li>immediate </li></ul><ul><li>allows choice </li></ul>
  32. 32. Explicit instruction is required <ul><li>for students to be able to reason historically </li></ul><ul><li>and interpret historical sources </li></ul>
  33. 33. Reliability <ul><li>Challenging students to question the reliability or completeness of a document or an artifact? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Explicit teaching of source analysis <ul><li>by explaining & modelling, </li></ul><ul><li>followed by opportunities to practice and apply the skills </li></ul><ul><li>circle time sharing of primary sources from students’ homes; their own stories </li></ul>Teaching about primary sources
  35. 35. <ul><li>Npihp ’ </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed description of item </li></ul><ul><li>the appearance/style </li></ul><ul><li>the materials / construction </li></ul><ul><li>the language used </li></ul><ul><li>the design/style/font </li></ul>Observe! <ul><li>Origin </li></ul><ul><li>When was it created? </li></ul><ul><li>Who created it? </li></ul><ul><li>Primary or secondary source? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>For what purpose was it created? </li></ul><ul><li>How was it used? </li></ul><ul><li>What value did this item have for the user? </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>For whom was it intended? </li></ul><ul><li>Who would have used it? </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>What else was going on at that time ? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the school like at that time ? </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>What is your interpretation of the source? What do you think about it? </li></ul><ul><li>Was the creator biased? </li></ul><ul><li>What bias do you have when you consider this evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and completeness </li></ul><ul><li>How reliable is this source? Can we trust this source? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it tell you the whole story? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Meta-language <ul><li>Students need to learn and use the right language when discussing historical evidence </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Teaching students how to cross reference with other sources </li></ul>Context For example; Why was dissecting a rabbit so important in domestic science in1960s? Exploring the meaning, values and attitudes of people who have gone before.
  38. 38. Historical reasoning and interpretation Students develop an understanding of: <ul><li>change and continuity over time </li></ul><ul><li>the open ended nature of historical inquiry </li></ul>
  39. 39. Students’ experiences of evaluating evidence <ul><li>Informs future research using the Internet and print texts </li></ul>
  40. 40. Future inquiries and research findings in museums and archives <ul><li>Informed by their direct experience of source analysis </li></ul>
  41. 41. Additional Student Activities: Year 11 Prefect Anzac Service Presentation <ul><li>Student research of ‘structured narrative’ </li></ul><ul><li>Letters and family diaries provide students with an historical ‘close encounter’ </li></ul><ul><li>Critical questioning – Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Commemoration of loss and memorialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Evaluation distinguishing history from myth </li></ul><ul><li>VELS Civics – Values, patriotism and identity </li></ul>2001 Anzac Day Service program Sapper Keith Allen Died 1943 Cpl. Gambold 1916
  42. 42. Art Design Student : Plan for 2/24 th Battalion commemorative garden including fig tree.
  43. 43. Year 8 Oral History Project 1999 <ul><li>Analysis of Research available to develop questions. Only as valuable as the questions asked. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of open ended questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Active listening </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of people from relevant decades etc </li></ul><ul><li>Interview technique skills –speech rate, voice tone and inflection </li></ul><ul><li>Permission forms </li></ul><ul><li>Interview log reporting. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Buried 1984 -2050 (unearthed for 2009 Reunion) </li></ul><ul><li>VELS: Science, mathematics, history, Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and preparation for the ‘Dig’ </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative research of 1984 event </li></ul>Time Capsule: ‘Cylinder of 1000 messages’
  45. 45. <ul><li>Time Capsule: ‘Cylinder of 1000 messages’ </li></ul><ul><li>Buried 1984 -2050 (unearthed for 2009 Reunion </li></ul><ul><li>Opening the time capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation plan strategy development </li></ul><ul><li>Photocopying of student work </li></ul><ul><li>Student analysis of materials found in time capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom use of 1984 student predictions </li></ul><ul><li>2009 Centenary Time capsule student predictive writing </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing class use </li></ul>
  46. 46. Community Learning Centre Year 9 Small Learning Groups 2008 - 2009 <ul><li>Activity focus Centenary Reunion event 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Publicising for students </li></ul><ul><li>Student Projects included: </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Tour of the School campus </li></ul><ul><li>Publicity material – Flyers/ brochures/ school maps </li></ul><ul><li>School Tour guides </li></ul><ul><li>Short film presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti Wall (English) </li></ul>
  47. 47. Graffiti Wall published in Korrumbeia School magazine 1973. Graffiti Wall prepared by students for WHS Centenary 2009
  48. 48. Centenary Reunion Displays 2009 <ul><li>Evaluating, Analysing and Organising Research materials </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative and report writing </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence from photographs </li></ul>
  49. 49. Ongoing display development <ul><li>Visual Literacy : Research using Objects in Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding non-verbal messages </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Language of Vision’ </li></ul><ul><li>Functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in use over time – does the design remain the same even when function changes? </li></ul><ul><li>Examining artefacts – describing and evaluating </li></ul>
  50. 50. Bloom/Gardiner Grid (Developed : L. Green & SOSE Staff and archivist R.Diffey) Gardiner: Eight ways to be smart Bloom’s Taxonomy: Six Thinking Levels Knowing Understanding Applying Analysing Creating Evaluating Verbal I enjoy reading writing & speaking List the subjects that were studied in the early days of the WHS Write a report which describes 2 – 3 major changes that have happened throughout the history of WHS Imagine you are a teacher looking for a job in the 1930’s. Write a letter to the principal of WHS at this time and explain why you should be employed. Interview and record conversation with a past student of WHS about what school life was like for them. Play this to the class and discuss how you think school life is now similar / different. Pretend you are a student at WHS in the 1940’s. Write a journal entry which describes a day in your life. Write a report which discusses the good things from WHS in the past that we have now lost and the good things about life at WHS now that were missing In the past. Mathematical I enjoy working with numbers and science Create a timeline which lists the key dates in WHS history Describe the major events in each decade of WHS history Present a graph which shows the student population of WHS at different times throughout its past. Compare maps of WHS at different times of its history (including the future plans). How much space is given to buildings and play space at different times? Describe the impact of this on students and teachers at these times. Design a map of your ideal school and explain how it would be different to the current plans for the future of WHS. Prepare a list of criteria which a teacher of the 1930’s might have been judged by.
  51. 51. Visual/Spatial I enjoy painting, drawing & visualising. Find and photograph something very old and something very new at WHS Explain the significance of something very old and something very new at WHS Draw a map of WHS and create a legend which shows the most important areas to a Yr 7 student. Explain whether you think a Yr 7 student of the past would think these areas were important as well. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages in the development of WHS Create a photographic journal of a day in the life of WHS in 2008. Kinaesthetic I enjoy doing hands on activities, sports and dance Make a paper doll which displays the original uniforms of WHS Learn about a Sport that might have been played in the early days of WHS and teach this to the Class. Make a diorama which shows what a classroom would have been like in the early days of WHS In a group present a role play of what a class might have been like at a different time in WHS history Make a mock school book which might have belonged to a student in the 1970’s Musical I enjoy making and listening to music Write the lyrics to the old school song Read the lyrics to 3 of the songs in the school song book and explain what each song is about and why it might have been included in the song book. Look at the old school songbook and learn to play/sing one of the songs. Explain to the class why you think students at the school would have learnt this song. Make a CD of music that might have been popular in each decade of WHS history and explain how iot reflects what life might have been like for students at each stage. Using your knowledge of school life in the past , write the lyrics to a song which explains how WHS history has changed over the years. Gardiner: Eight ways to be smart Bloom’s Taxonomy: Six Thinking Levels Knowing Understanding Applying Analysing Creating
  52. 52. Interpersonal I enjoy working with others Use a Venn Diagram to show the differences between your schooling and your parents. Interview a past older member of the school and present a biography of that person’s life, identifying important events. In a group present a role play of what a class might have been like at a different time in WHS history Interview and record one of your teachers in order to learn how their job today is different to teachers in the past. Work with a partner to prepare an oral presentation where one of you talks about a typical day for a student at WHS today and one talks about a typical day for a student of the past. Compare the differences. Intrapersonal I enjoy working by myself. Make a T chart of the differences between your primary school and the WHS. Read one of the old school magazines and write a paragraph about experiences then and compare to your school day. Explain how you would feel if you were attending WHS in the 1930’s What do you think are some of the good things about WHS now Write a letter to the Principal explaining some of the changes that you think would improve the WHS Gardiner: Eight ways to be smart Bloom’s Taxonomy: Six Thinking Levels Knowing Understanding Applying Analysing Creating
  53. 53. MY PLACE IN SPACE ‘ Wangaratta High School … Past, Present and Future’ An Integrated Unit VELS Domains: English, Humanities (Geography, History and Economics) Personal Learning Interpersonal Development Civics and Citizenship Communication Design, Creativity and Technology ICT Thinking Processes Level Five : Year 7 Standards: Overview: This unit focuses on developing student’s knowledge of themselves and their place in the wider community. Students will develop skills in mapping, fieldwork and financial literacy whilst also developing knowledge of historical, geographical and economic enquiry. They will be involved in a range of learning activities which will develop their skills across the interdisciplinary and physical, personal and social learning domains. The focus of he unit is also intended to compliment the orientation of beginning students into the new school .
  54. 54. <ul><li>Essential Questions : </li></ul><ul><li>How has the environment of Wangaratta High School evolved since its early days? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the environment of Wangaratta High School like now? </li></ul><ul><li>What can be done to develop the environment of the Wangaratta High School for the future? </li></ul><ul><li>What role do you play in Wangaratta High School now and what can you play in the Future? </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>PAST(History Skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Construct a timeline of WHS history </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and Secondary sources which tell WHS history </li></ul><ul><li>Construct a dig site students of the future might uncover from WHS </li></ul><ul><li>Facts and opinions about WHS history </li></ul><ul><li>An artefact for a museum of the future on WHS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose an item from WHS today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would it tell people of the future about our school? </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><ul><li>PRESENT (GEOGRAPHY) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Orienteering Course around the school ( bearing and compasses) </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic co-ordinates of the school ( latitude and Longitude) Google Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Grid references (local map reading) </li></ul><ul><li>Overlay maps of school plan changes </li></ul><ul><li>Create a map for Year 7 (BOLTSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom scale activities </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of maps of WHS (Choropleth, topographic, aerial photographs, satellite images etc) </li></ul>
  57. 57. FUTURE (Economics) “ Should WHS ……………….” We deliver a proposal, they plan an inquiry to see whether it is economically viable and a worthwhile move for the future of the school ENGLISH (Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening) Writing Biography of Someone who attended WHS in the past Letter to someone in the future explaining what life at WHS is like at present Report on economic proposal for the school environment Reading Accounts from past students and staff Historical documents – newspapers, minutes and correspondence etc Non literal – photographs, maps Speaking and listening Oral histories Present biography Discuss proposals.
  58. 58. Cultural exhibition education programs creating collaborative learning outcomes in diverse communities.
  59. 59. Example 1. <ul><li>Is a three year community project that aims to build greater understanding, tolerance and acceptance of difference in one of Australia’s most diverse urban communities – Springvale </li></ul><ul><li>The project involves gathering people’s stories as participants from diverse backgrounds tell their own stories and interact with someone from a different ethnic or social group </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing a photographic snapshot of Springvale community life </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting a variety of projects including artists in schools, exhibitions of project work completed over the three years, performance and artist installations. </li></ul><ul><li>Online resource – www.springvalestories.org.au where members of the community can gather and input information. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Stage 1. Face to Face Exhibition 2010, Comic Artist Sarah Firth collaborated with local Springvale Primary Schools to enable students to use the medium of comic art to express their experiences of life in Springvale. Approximately 2000 local Springvale Primary School students visited the exhibition. (From Prep to Grade 6). Each student had the opportunity to produce a comic artwork, from these Sarah selected several from each primary school and further visited the students at their school to make a video and encourage further artwork that will be made in a short animated film for presentation at the Face to Face Stage 2 exhibition. During 2011 another artist : Anu Patel will be working with Secondary Schools in Springvale using a variety mediums to create artwork that will recognise the differences, inclusion and exclusion experienced in Springvale.
  61. 62. Keysborough Learning Centre – ESL Adult Learners Groups. Presentation adapted to meet the needs of each group. ‘ We need to know’ – an eagerness to learn about the changes over times and to see maps, photographs etc to learn an understanding of their home –Springvale.
  62. 63. Example 2 ‘ Made by the Hands of Man’ Exhibition Education Kit A Multi-discipline Education Kit developed for classroom use pre and post visit to the interactive active exhibition to explore Dandenong's brick making industry :the tools, people who used them and changing architectural styles in local home building throughout the 20 th Century. <ul><li>The kit features: </li></ul><ul><li>a sample Rubric using Blooms Taxonomy and Gardner's Multiple Intelligences for activities for classroom use </li></ul><ul><li>A VELS Unit Planner for Levels 2 – 4 on the theme Community brickwork industry – changes in tools and processes. ( Essential to enable curriculum outcomes from the exhibition to fit within VELS Learning outcomes </li></ul>
  63. 64. Example 3 ‘ Pages of Wisdom’ Heritage books, cultural folk lore, illustration art and book sculpture. Aim: To give the community an opportunity to experience the many varied heritage books in the CGD collection. Partnerships with libraries, Children’s book museums to develop displays. Displays included : creation stories from many cultures and heritage family bibles Traditional folk tales e.g. ‘Cinderella’ – English and Laotian version. Contemporary children’s book art from Books Illustrated and Dromkeen Children’s Book Museum School activity program that enabled primary school children to develop their own book.