Biological molecules intro to the carbohydrates


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Biological molecules intro to the carbohydrates

  1. 1. Stanmore College Interview Presentation Introduction to Biological Molecules Lyndsae Drury Biology Lecturer
  2. 2. Biological molecules• 1. Water• 2. ions• 3. Sugars, Carbohydrates• 4. Proteins• 5. Lipids
  3. 3. CarbohydratesCarbohydrates contain 3 elements:• Carbon (C)• Hydrogen (H)• Oxygen (O)
  4. 4. • Carbohydrates are found in one of three forms:• Monosaccharides• Disaccharides (both sugars)• Polysaccharides• Monosaccharides• General formula:.
  5. 5. • Trioses: (e.g. glyceraldehydes), intermediates in respiration and photosynthesis.• Tetroses: rare.• Pentoses: (e.g. ribose, ribulose), used in the synthesis of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), co- enzymes (NAD, NADP, FAD) and ATP.• Hexoses: (e.g. glucose, fructose), used as a source of energy in respiration and as building blocks for larger molecules.• All but one carbon atom have an alcohol (OH)
  6. 6. • Mono Saccharides
  7. 7. • Examples of Disaccharides• Sucrose: glucose + fructose,• Lactose: glucose + galactose,• Maltose: glucose + glucose.• Maltose: glucose + glucose.
  8. 8. Disaccharides
  9. 9. Starch made of two polysaccharides
  10. 10. Differences between Glycogen andAmylopectin polysaccharides.The branches are formed by linking C # 1 to a C # 6 through an acetallinkages. In glycogen, the branches occur at intervals of 8-10 glucoseunits, while in amylopectin the branches are separated by 12-20glucose units
  11. 11. Other Novel PolysaccharidesChitin polysaccharide foundin crabs and sea shellswhereas Lignin in wood