International Perspectives:
Visualization in Science and Education

     American Chemical Society
     CINF Division, Mar...
What should we teach?
    How should we teach it?
      How do we decide?
     What do students see?
• Introduction - Lear...
Audience? Purpose? Developer?

                                                                 Public
                Inf...
Visual Complexity
http://www.visualcomplexity.com/
What happened to the French Army?
   www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/minard
Statistical Graph - Charles Minard (1861)
Adapted by Aaron Walburg and Stephen Hartzog (1996)
    (gif animation – better ...
The Visual Elements Periodic Table
    http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements
Ionization Energy Landscape Video
http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
Periodic Landscapes
http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
Decoding…
What are those balls?


                                            DNA-binding domain of the GAL4 transcription...
Multiple Representations
 What do students see?       > 8 million!
      Google Images: “DNA”
Bruce Alberts
            Former President:
      National Academies of Science
        Editor: Science Magazine

“The Cel...
Web of Science
http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project.cfm?id=434
“Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules”
     Chime (mid 90s) ->Jmol (since ~2003)
     http://virtual-museum.soils.wisc...
MDL Cool Chime Sites by Liz D. 1997
NSF Workshop 2001: new interdisciplinary focus
      http://www.rsc.org/images/p2_Jones_tcm18-33083.pdf
Gordon Research Conference
       Visualization in
   Science and Education

 Interdisciplinary Research
  Speakers & Part...
Agendas: http://www.grc.org/conferences.aspx?id=0000385
The Conference brings together:
• physical and biological scientists
• graphics specialists
• cognitive scientists

In a f...
Visualization in Science & Education
  Cognitive scientists’understanding of human
  perception and cognition guides the r...
Visualization in Science & Education
•   Biology
•   Chemistry
•   Physics
•   Engineering
•   Psychology
•   Computer Sci...
Peter Atkins (Oxford)
Loretta Jones (U Northern Colorado)
  http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/RP/issues/2005_3/
2007 GRC Speaker:
          Donna Cox, NCSA &UIUC
     http://access.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Stories/supertwister/




             ...
Pat Hanrahan (Stanford)
    Computer Graphics Research
“This is the best conference I attend”
  – Developer of RenderMan s...
Barbara Tversky, Psychology
            Stanford & Columbia U.
     “Animation, Does it Facilitate Learning?”
            ...
Mary Hegarty, Psychology
               UC Santa Barbara
       http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/visual_displays.php

“W...
Shaaron Ainsworth, Psychology
                     University of Nottingham
          Learning with Visual & Multiple Repr...
Ainsworth
Ed Psych & Visualization
• Miller - Magic #7 (1956)

• Pavio - Dual Coding (1980s)

• Sweller et. al. (1980s)
  - Cognitiv...
Alex Johnstone (1983):
         Journal of Chemical Education
How many chunks?

 •   Miller number 7
 •   Working memory  ...
Levels of Representation
            Symbolic                 Macroscopic
              H2O




                       Sub...
Google:
“Dissolving
  NaCl”




 NCSSM: Flash Animation from North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
What do students see?
  Insoluble Liquids
Google Images: “NaCl dissolving”
What do students see?

      Molecules?
         Ions?
   Colored spheres?

  How do we know?
“Representational
 Competence?”

                          Roy Tasker




          Tom Greenbowe
“On the Surface of Things”
         Felice Frankel & George Whitesides




ACS Priestly Medalist
C&E News, March 2007
“She Calls It ‘Phenomena.’
              Everyone Else Calls It Art.”




Felice Frankel, NYT June 2007
Donald Sadoway, MIT (with Felice Frankel)
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Link to student animation: h...
MIT-NSF: “Picturing to Learn”
     http://web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_students.html

“We compared scores on the final e...
Collaborative Environments
   chemsense.org/about/papers.html
Marcia Linn, UC Berkeley
Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE)Making
              complex science visible:
       ...
CyberlearningReport:
http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=nsf08204
WISE Chemical Reactions:
      Visualize &Reflect
Intro: http://wise.berkeley.edu/pages/intro/wiseFlashIntro.php

        ...
WISE Student Results
   Increased connections among symbolic and molecular
   representations, limiting reactants, and con...
Participate in TELS & WISE
TELS Professional development model enables teachers to
begin using modules and design their ow...
http://www.slideshare.net/ldorland
GRC Viz
   Mt. Holyoke
      2001

     Oxford
 2003, 2005, 2009

   Rhode Island
   2007 + 2011
http://www.grc.org
Learning & Instruction
               Cognition & Instruction
      Journal of Research in Science
                       ...
Links to Visualization Refs & Resources
Liz Dorland on Slideshare
http://www.slideshare.net/ldorland/

GRC Visualization P...
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International Perspectives: Visualization in Science and Education

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Overview of the international and interdisciplinary Gordon Research Conference on Visualization in Science and Education and info on key cognitive science and learning sciences researchers. History of the conference, NSF workshop, and research on learning with visualizations.

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International Perspectives: Visualization in Science and Education

  1. 1. International Perspectives: Visualization in Science and Education American Chemical Society CINF Division, March 2010 Liz Dorland Washington University dorland@wustl.edu slideshare.net/ldorland
  2. 2. What should we teach? How should we teach it? How do we decide? What do students see? • Introduction - Learning from images • A Little History • NSF Workshop on Visualization (2001) • Gordon Research Conference on Visualization in Science and Education • Interdisciplinary Participants& Research
  3. 3. Audience? Purpose? Developer? Public Informal Science Understanding Education Education of Science Scientific Visualization Scientific Public Research Public Understanding Understanding of Science of Science
  4. 4. Visual Complexity http://www.visualcomplexity.com/
  5. 5. What happened to the French Army? www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/minard
  6. 6. Statistical Graph - Charles Minard (1861) Adapted by Aaron Walburg and Stephen Hartzog (1996) (gif animation – better or worse than static?) http://www.stat.ucla.edu/history/march.htm
  7. 7. The Visual Elements Periodic Table http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements
  8. 8. Ionization Energy Landscape Video http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
  9. 9. Periodic Landscapes
  10. 10. http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/ionisation.html
  11. 11. Decoding… What are those balls? DNA-binding domain of the GAL4 transcriptional regulatory protein. Lysine 18 sits in the major groove of DNA, recognizing the DNA sequence CGG. Polyview-3D Adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor functionally solubilized by self-assembly into a 10 nm diameter Nanodisc. Normal transcription requires both the Steve Sligar - U of Illinois DNA-binding domain (BD) and the activation domain (AD) of a transcriptional activator (TA). Science Creative Quarterlywww.scq.ubc.ca
  12. 12. Multiple Representations What do students see? > 8 million! Google Images: “DNA”
  13. 13. Bruce Alberts Former President: National Academies of Science Editor: Science Magazine “The Cell as a Collection of Protein Machines: Preparing the Next Generation of Molecular Biologists.” Bruce Alberts - Cell 92: 291-4. (1998) ~ 300 citations
  14. 14. Web of Science http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/project.cfm?id=434
  15. 15. “Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules” Chime (mid 90s) ->Jmol (since ~2003) http://virtual-museum.soils.wisc.edu/displays.html
  16. 16. MDL Cool Chime Sites by Liz D. 1997
  17. 17. NSF Workshop 2001: new interdisciplinary focus http://www.rsc.org/images/p2_Jones_tcm18-33083.pdf
  18. 18. Gordon Research Conference Visualization in Science and Education Interdisciplinary Research Speakers & Participants
  19. 19. Agendas: http://www.grc.org/conferences.aspx?id=0000385
  20. 20. The Conference brings together: • physical and biological scientists • graphics specialists • cognitive scientists In a forum for the critical examination of: • the uses of visual images in the physical and biological sciences and in mathematics • the tools used to create these images, and of • their effectiveness in conveying scientific information to specialist and novice audiences
  21. 21. Visualization in Science & Education Cognitive scientists’understanding of human perception and cognition guides the research and educational application of visualizations. Recent Conferences have been preceded by workshop tutorials on evaluating and creating better visualizations. Small, peer-reviewed mini-grants have been awarded post-Conference tofoster the multidisciplinary research needed to create effective visualization.
  22. 22. Visualization in Science & Education • Biology • Chemistry • Physics • Engineering • Psychology • Computer Science/Graphics • Earth Sciences • Mathematics • Cognitive Science & the Learning Sciences
  23. 23. Peter Atkins (Oxford) Loretta Jones (U Northern Colorado) http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/RP/issues/2005_3/
  24. 24. 2007 GRC Speaker: Donna Cox, NCSA &UIUC http://access.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Stories/supertwister/ Museum of Science &Industry Visualization by Donna Cox, Robert Patterson, Stuart Levy, Matt Hall, Alex Betts, NCSA
  25. 25. Pat Hanrahan (Stanford) Computer Graphics Research “This is the best conference I attend” – Developer of RenderMan software – Winner of two Academy Award – http://multi.stanford.edu/interaction/0207/hci.html
  26. 26. Barbara Tversky, Psychology Stanford & Columbia U. “Animation, Does it Facilitate Learning?” http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/ Diagramshttp://www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/diagrams/papers/ Space http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/space/papers/ Events http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~bt/events/papers/ • Animations have not been proven more effective than equivalent static graphics. • Animations that are invented and used in exploring phenomena and data, often by experts in pursuit of understanding, may be effective. • Creating animations may confer benefits to the creators. • Expertise in the specific content and animation may make some animations effective.
  27. 27. Mary Hegarty, Psychology UC Santa Barbara http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/visual_displays.php “We are interested in how people make sense of these complex visual-spatial displays and how they use them in learning, reasoning and problem solving.” “Eye tracking provides an online measure of the information that a viewer is accessing while reasoning and solving problems with complex visual displays.”
  28. 28. Shaaron Ainsworth, Psychology University of Nottingham Learning with Visual & Multiple Representations and Interactive Technologies http://www.psychology.nottingham.ac.uk/staff/Shaaron.Ainsworth/research.html • examine how different combinations of representations influence learning • identify a set of design principles for successful multi-representational software • develop a model of how people learn with multiple representations
  29. 29. Ainsworth
  30. 30. Ed Psych & Visualization • Miller - Magic #7 (1956) • Pavio - Dual Coding (1980s) • Sweller et. al. (1980s) - Cognitive Load Theory • Mayer & Moreno (1990s) - Multimedia Principles
  31. 31. Alex Johnstone (1983): Journal of Chemical Education How many chunks? • Miller number 7 • Working memory Organic Chem Topics After repeated attempts • Chunking • Perception filter • Information Processing Model
  32. 32. Levels of Representation Symbolic Macroscopic H2O Sub- Microscopic
  33. 33. Google: “Dissolving NaCl” NCSSM: Flash Animation from North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
  34. 34. What do students see? Insoluble Liquids
  35. 35. Google Images: “NaCl dissolving”
  36. 36. What do students see? Molecules? Ions? Colored spheres? How do we know?
  37. 37. “Representational Competence?” Roy Tasker Tom Greenbowe
  38. 38. “On the Surface of Things” Felice Frankel & George Whitesides ACS Priestly Medalist C&E News, March 2007
  39. 39. “She Calls It ‘Phenomena.’ Everyone Else Calls It Art.” Felice Frankel, NYT June 2007
  40. 40. Donald Sadoway, MIT (with Felice Frankel) Department of Materials Science and Engineering Link to student animation: http://web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_stu04.html
  41. 41. MIT-NSF: “Picturing to Learn” http://web.mit.edu/i-m/picturing/pict_students.html “We compared scores on the final exams 2004 vs 2005 and saw evidence in support of deeper understanding of concepts addressed in the picturing homework assignments.”
  42. 42. Collaborative Environments chemsense.org/about/papers.html
  43. 43. Marcia Linn, UC Berkeley Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE)Making complex science visible: http://tels.berkeley.edu/~mclinn/
  44. 44. CyberlearningReport: http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=nsf08204
  45. 45. WISE Chemical Reactions: Visualize &Reflect Intro: http://wise.berkeley.edu/pages/intro/wiseFlashIntro.php Jennifer Chiu How did making water molecules in Molecular Workbench relate to the balanced equation of 2H2+ O2 -> 2H2O? “They are related because in order to have no atoms left over in the workbench, we had to get a certain amount of oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms. This number is the same as the ratios in the balanced equation (2 H2, 1 O2, and you end up with 2H2O
  46. 46. WISE Student Results Increased connections among symbolic and molecular representations, limiting reactants, and conservation of mass. Pretest Post test Q. If only the molecules in the closed container below react KR (1) according to the equation: 2S + 3O2 ->2SO3 RB (1) BW (2) Draw the container after the reaction.
  47. 47. Participate in TELS & WISE TELS Professional development model enables teachers to begin using modules and design their own additional supports. (see http://TELSCenter.org) TELS Technology from WISE and Concord Consortium. (http://telscenter.org/technology) TELS Design Principles database is on-line and available for use in courses, customization activities, and design. (see http://www.design-principles.org) TELS Assessments are available and have accepted psychometric properties.
  48. 48. http://www.slideshare.net/ldorland
  49. 49. GRC Viz Mt. Holyoke 2001 Oxford 2003, 2005, 2009 Rhode Island 2007 + 2011 http://www.grc.org
  50. 50. Learning & Instruction Cognition & Instruction Journal of Research in Science Teaching International Journal of Science Education Applied Cognitive Psychology Journal of the Learning Sciences Journals with Research on Visualization Cognitive Science Educational Technology Research & Development Journal of Science, Ed & Technology British Journal of Educational Technology Technology, Pedagogy and Liz Dorland Education Washington University in St. Louis Canadian J of Learning Technology dorland@wustl.edu Computers & Human Behavior Learning, Media & Technology
  51. 51. Links to Visualization Refs & Resources Liz Dorland on Slideshare http://www.slideshare.net/ldorland/ GRC Visualization Past Agendas http://www.grc.org/conferences.aspx?id=0000385 Mary Hegarty research http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/~hegarty/visual_displays.php Marcia Linn and Visualization on Google Scholar http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&safe=active&domains=vis.berkeley.edu&q= Marcia%20Linn%20visualization&sitesearch=&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=ws Toward a Learning Technologies knowledge network (ETR&D article) http://www.springerlink.com/content/y781h1p7561p3h71/?p=4fd759ee01aa46d7a98 99a56783a9b45&pi=2 Timeline of the History of Dataviz Milestones http://datavis.ca/milestones/

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