History and theory of visualizations in teaching chemistry


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  • Wonderful presentation, Liz! Really thoughtful way to tie it all together. Kind of staggering when you see how far we've traveled. And what a tribute to Tom Greenbowe!
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  • History and theory of visualizations in teaching chemistry

    1. 1. History and theory of visualizations in teaching chemistry: Examining the impact of Tom Greenbowe and other chemical heroes ACS Pimentel Award Symposium, March 2014 Liz Dorland - dorland@wustl.edu - slideshare.net/ldorland Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center Washington University in St. Louis
    2. 2. History and theory of visualizations in teaching chemistry: Examining the impact of Tom Greenbowe and other chemical heroes One hundred and fifty years of chemical education research provides critical insight to questions about what chemistry students need to know and how they learn it best. But how much has our chemistry teaching practice changed in light of that knowledge?

In this talk we will travel from 1857 to 2013 to review chemical education landmarks and the patterns they suggest. From Porter's “Principles of Chemistry” (1857), to Charles W. Eliot and Frank H. Storer's “Manual of Inorganic Chemistry” (1871), to Mabery (Harvard & Case) (1893), to Steele's “A Fourteen Weeks Course in Chemistry” (1876), to the 1960s ChemStudy project lead by Pimentel, to the work of Tom Greenbowe and others over the last three decades, leading the way in the use of visualizations to explain chemical concepts.

Effective active learning methods for chemistry classroom and lab have a deep and well-regarded history. In spite of this, “chalk and talk” presentations with few visuals and little student interaction are still common in the chemistry classroom. Why? And how can we change the dynamic? 

    3. 3. Tom Greenbowe – Google-y Images
    4. 4. BCCE 2004 Iowa State 18BCCE Al D Hyde & the Ketones 1982
    5. 5. Chemistry Lecture USA A history of the teaching of chemistry in the secondary schools of the United States previous to 1850 1767 1825 1920
    6. 6. Charles W. Eliot Chemist & Harvard President (1869-1909) “Spontaneous diversity of choice” (open-ended curriculum) “The organization of the American colleges and their connections is extensive and inflexible. “ “A large number of professors trained in the existing methods hold firm possession, and transmit the traditions they inherited.” The New Education - The Atlantic – 1869 www.harvard.edu/history/presidents/eliot
    7. 7. Manual of Inorganic Chemistry Charles W. Eliot & Frank H. Storer (MIT 1860s) Read Online or Download
    8. 8. J. Dorman Steele archive.org/details/coursefourteenwe00steerich “In 1879, his Chemistry was used in 60 out of 122 public high schools in larger cities. Seven of his texts were still in print in 1928, 42 years after his death. His books made a significant contribution to the popularization of science in America.” Bull. Hist. Chem. (1994) download
    9. 9. Arnold O. Beckman: 100 Years of Excellence Chemical Heritage Foundation (2000) At age 9, Beckman found a copy of Joel Dorman Steele’s Fourteen Weeks in Chemistry in his attic. ACS Profiles in Chemistry Google Books Preview
    10. 10. Google Books Preview Arnold O. Beckman: One Hundred Years of Excellence, Volume 1 ACS Profiles in Chemistry J. Dorman Steele
    11. 11. Man in a Chemical World (ACS 1937) Creating an Image of Science: Persuasion and Iconography in A. Cressy Morrison's Man in a Chemical World
    12. 12. G.N. Lewis at UC Berkeley - One of his first moves was to turn almost the entire staff loose upon the problem of starting the freshman in the way he should go, by fostering a scientific habit of mind in every conceivable way. - We met weekly to discuss the organization of the freshman course and the methods of presenting difficult topics. - The complaint that a freshman in a large university has no contact with professors has not applied in freshman chemistry at the University of California, for as many as eight full professors have in a single term taught freshman sections. -- Joel Hildebrand in an NAS bio of G.N. Lewis
    13. 13. Pimentel Discusses Hydrogen Atom Link to Video
    14. 14. ChemStudy on YouTube 49 Video Playlist
    15. 15. Vibration of Molecules Pimentel, Pauling, Hildebrand ChemStudy Video Link
    16. 16. • Discussion among teachers and the CHEM Study staff – panel session George Pimentel The CHEM Study Story CHEM Study on Archive.org
    17. 17. Alex Johnstone: JCE 1983 • Miller number 7 • Working memory • Chunking • Perception filter • Information Processing Model How many chunks? Organic Chem Topics After repeated attempts
    18. 18. Loretta Jones Click Look Inside
    19. 19. Greenbowe Visualizations ~100 Simulation & Animation Downloads
    20. 20. Electrochemical Cell Experiment Greenbowe Flash Animations & Simulations
    21. 21. Loretta Jones - NSF 2001
    22. 22. Representational Competence & Multiple Representations are these the Same or Different? Tom Greenbowe Roy Tasker
    23. 23. MacroscopicSymbolic Sub-Microscopic H2O Levels of Representation Peter Mahaffy – Macroscopic (water) – Symbolic (formula) – Sub-microscopic (molecule)
    24. 24. “Dissolving NaCl” - add salt to water Run web animation: NCSSM Chapter5-Animations/Dissolving_NaCl-Electrolyte Screenshots from NCSSM C.O.R.E. - Chemistry Online Resource Essentials North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
    25. 25. “Dissolving NaCl” H2O solvates Na+ & Cl- ions Screenshots from NCSSM Animation (2007)
    26. 26. What do students see? See the layers? Which is more dense? Play Animation of Polar and Non-Polar in Solution
    27. 27. GRC: Visualization in Science and Education Bates College: Aug. 2-7, 2015
    28. 28. Map of Learning Theories www.greatmathsteachingideas.com/2013/05/09/infographic-of-learning-theories/
    29. 29. Liz Dorland dorland@wustl.edu visualcv.com/ldorland – slideshare.net/ldorland