Visualization and Theories of Learning in Education


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Presentation at the fall 2007 American Chemical Society meeting in Boston.

Published in: Technology, Education
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Visualization and Theories of Learning in Education

  1. 1. (and use) Design of computer-based visualization and animation: What theories of learning apply? <ul><li>Liz Dorland </li></ul><ul><li>Washington University in St. Louis </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  2. 2. Multiple Representations What do students see? Google Images: “DNA”
  3. 3. Representational Competency & Visual Literacy <ul><li>“ Modular mental structures for non-traditional hyperliving.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Newer Developments in Educational Theory <ul><li>“ Contextual Turn” in ed/ed psych research </li></ul><ul><li>The Learning Sciences - trans-disciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Design-based research - defining context </li></ul><ul><li>Situated Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Transformative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-Supported Collaborative Work </li></ul>New models of and for learning…
  5. 5. Kolodner, J. L., C. E. Hmelo, et al. (1996) “Problem-Based Learning Meets Case-Based Reasoning” Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 12, No. 4: pages 495-547. Short version: <ul><li>“ The modern education community agrees that deep and effective learning is best promoted by situating learning in authentic activity.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many in the education community have put in place constructivist classroom practices…” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Do you agree? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Learning Paradigms (oversimplified) Behaviorist (e.g. Skinner) vs Cognitivist vs Constructivist
  7. 7. Three Paradigms? Multiple theories? How many? Which one is right?
  8. 8. TIP: 50+ Theories of Learning <ul><li>ACT (Anderson) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Learning Theory (Cross) </li></ul><ul><li>Algo-Heuristic Theory (Landa) </li></ul><ul><li>Andragogy (Knowles) </li></ul><ul><li>Anchored Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>(Bransford-CTGV) </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (Cronbach & Snow) </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution Theory (Weiner) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Flexibility (Spiro) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller) </li></ul><ul><li>Component Display (Merrill) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of Learning (Gagne) </li></ul><ul><li>Connectionism (Thorndike) </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist Theory (Bruner) </li></ul><ul><li>Contiguity Theory (Guthrie) </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation Theory (Pask) </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion Referenced Instruction (Mager) </li></ul><ul><li>Double Loop Learning (Argyris) </li></ul><ul><li>Drive Reduction Theory (Hull) </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Coding Theory (Paivio) </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration Theory (Reigeluth) </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential Learning (Rogers) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Context (Sticht) </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Epistemology (Piaget) </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt Theory (Wertheimer) </li></ul><ul><li>GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell) </li></ul><ul><li>GPS (Newell & Simon) </li></ul>
  9. 9. - page 2 <ul><li>Information Pickup (Gibson) </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing (Miller) </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Thinking (DeBono) </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart) </li></ul><ul><li>GOMS (Card, Moran & Newell) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical Learning Theory (Atkinson) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical Problem Solving (Schoenfeld) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimalism (Carroll) </li></ul><ul><li>Model Centered Instruction & Design Layering (Gibbons) </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of Learning </li></ul><ul><li>(Rumelhart & Norman) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences (Gardner) </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning (Skinner) </li></ul><ul><li>Originality Theory (Maltzman) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenonography </li></ul><ul><li>(Marton & Entwistle) </li></ul><ul><li>Repair Theory (VanLehn) </li></ul><ul><li>Script Theory (Schank) </li></ul><ul><li>Sign Theory (Tolman) </li></ul><ul><li>Situated Learning (Lave) </li></ul><ul><li>Soar (Newell et al.) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Development (Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning (Bandura) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Sampling (Estes) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Learning (Scandura) </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of Intellect (Guilford) </li></ul><ul><li>Subsumption Theory (Ausubel) </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol Systems (Salomon) </li></ul><ul><li>Triarchic Theory (Sternberg) </li></ul>
  10. 10. So many theories…why? What factors are important? Do kids and adults learn differently? Different traditions… Different methodologies… Who are these theorists?
  11. 11. Who is this man? “ ... People with great passions, people who accomplish great deeds, people who possess strong feelings, even people with great minds and a strong personality, rarely come out of good little boys and girls.” from Educational Psychology (a practical manual for teachers) http: //marxists . anu . edu .au/archive/vygotsky/ Lev Vygotsky (1926)
  12. 12. Knud Illeris - A Unified Concept for Theories of Learning?
  13. 13. Chemical Education Research Early work was based on cognitive theories that are still evolving and remain popular. Key concept: Working memory capacity
  14. 14. Alex Johnstone Journal of Chemical Education, March 1997 Cognitive Theory: Information Processing Model
  15. 15. Alex Johnstone: JCE 1983 <ul><li>Miller number 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul><ul><li>Chunking </li></ul><ul><li>Perception filter </li></ul><ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing Model </li></ul>Organic Chem Topics After repeated attempts How many chunks?
  16. 16. Ed Psych & Visualization <ul><li>Evolution of Cognitive Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Miller - Magic #7 (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Pavio - Dual Coding (1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Sweller et. al. (1980s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Load Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mayer & Moreno (1990s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Principles </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Applied Cognitive Psychology - a Themed Issue “Emerging Topics in Cognitive Load Research: Using Learner and Information Characteristics in the Design of Powerful Learning Environments”
  18. 18. New Tools for Viz - e.g. Jmol “Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules”
  19. 19. But is it truly interactive? How do students learn best with these new tools? Can learning theories help us to decide? Which one?
  20. 20. Google Search: “Dissolving NaCl” NCSSM: Flash Animation from North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics
  21. 21. Multimedia and Animations What do students see? Molecules? Ions? Colored balls? Does motion create understanding? How do we know?
  22. 22. Google Images: “NaCl dissolving”
  23. 23. Are we getting somewhere? Which animation is best? How much detail? How do we know?
  24. 24. What do students see?
  25. 25. NCSSM: and
  26. 26. Does “ Cognitive Load Theory” really work? Does it lead to better learning materials and more learning? Not everyone agrees…
  27. 27. “Representational Competence?” Tom Greenbowe Roy Tasker
  28. 28. Try “Multiple Representations!”
  29. 29. Google Scholar for References
  30. 30. Ainsworth
  31. 31. “ Multiple Representations” may yield better results… What about social interactions?
  32. 32. Collaborative Environments
  33. 33. Collaborative approaches involving teachers (e.g. Design-based Research) have become common… Bell, P. L. (2004). &quot;On the Theoretical Breadth of Design-Based Research in Education.&quot; Educational Psychologist 39 (4): 243-253. <ul><li>“ Over the past decade, design experimentation has become an increasingly accepted mode of research appropriate for the theoretical and empirical study of learning amidst complex educational interventions as they are enacted in everyday settings.” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Alternate Perspectives: Philosophy of Science and Technology Studies Popper Kuhn
  35. 35. What’s Your Theory? Use online resources to find out. <ul><li>AISHE: All Ireland Society for Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Five free online books on teaching & learning </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Emerging issues in the practice of University Learning and Teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It works in practice, but will it work in theory?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. An unusual Gordon Conference is discussed at NSF in 2001
  37. 37. 2007 GRC Viz Speaker: Donna Cox, NCSA & UIUC Artist & Computer Graphics Professor Visualization by Donna Cox, Robert Patterson, Stuart Levy, Matt Hall, Alex Betts, NCSA
  38. 38. Mt. Holyoke 2001 Oxford 2003, 2005 + 2009? Rhode Island 2007 + 2011?
  39. 39. Learn More Fast - Research Journals Ed. Technology Research & Development Journal of Science, Ed & Technology British Journal of Educational Technology Technology, Pedagogy and Education Canadian J of Learning Technology Computers & Human Behavior Learning, Media & Technology Learning & Instruction Cognition & Instruction Journal of Research in Science Teaching International Journal of Science Education Applied Cognitive Psychology Journal of the Learning Sciences Cognitive Science Liz Dorland Washington University in St. Louis [email_address]