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Political Parties Iii


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Political Parties Iii

  1. 1. Political Parties <ul><li>What is the difference between the Republicans and the Democrats? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are political parties important in a democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the US only have two viable parties? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Voter Behavior
  3. 3. Political Socialization <ul><li>Source of political beliefs and attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and the Social Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders’ Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60’s and the Vietnam War Era </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What are political parties? <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually by participating in electoral campaigns. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties often support a certain ideology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subgroups interests are integrated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. George Washington <ul><li>“ Baneful effects of the spirit of party.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Constitution <ul><li>Says nothing about political parties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founding fathers felt parties were wicked and corrupt. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want parties to control politics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want to pervade the entire country and create factions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Institutional Constraints on Political Parties <ul><li>Structure and Strength of Parties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majoritarian or Proportional Representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential or Parliamentary System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws and Constitution </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Theory: Lipset and Rokkan <ul><li>Theory on Political Cleavages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties that were formed in the aftermath of political, religious, and economic revolutions are frozen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State vs. Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worker vs. Owner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land vs. Industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center vs. Periphery (Fed vs. State) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These have and will continue to exist in the political arena despite new issues and challenges. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Today’s Major US Political Parties and Ideology <ul><li>Republican Party (GOP)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the more socially conservative and economically neoliberal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-Faire Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairman- Ken Mehlman </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democratic Party- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered more socially liberal and economically interventionist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairman- Howard Dean </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. US Parties: First Party System (before 1824) American Revolution <ul><li>Federalist </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Anti federalist </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Jefferson </li></ul>Jackson split into a Democratic party Adams remained in the Republican party, but latter called the Whigs
  11. 11. US Parties: First Party System (before 1824) <ul><li>Federalist and Ant federalist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the adoption of the Constitution, groups formed around either supporting or opposing its ratification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significance of parties grew in the second presidential election. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformation of nascent party platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Federal Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-federalist became Republicans (Democratic-Republicans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans and farmers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States rights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. US Parties: The Feel Good Era Consolidation of US Government Republicans Jackson split into a Democratic party Adams remained in the Republican party, but latter called the Whigs
  13. 13. The Era of Feel Good <ul><li>Transformation of two party system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people votes Republican. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual collapse of the Federalist party by 1816 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No opposition party, so internal fighting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republican Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still opposed federalist ideas of big central govt, but the US govt acquired Lo. And Fl. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established national bank </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. US Parties: Second Party System (1824–1854) Prelude to Civil War Democrats : Jackson Whig party (National Republicans ) Southern Whigs ceased to exist (dealigned) Lincoln’s Republican party: Northern Whigs realigned, and united with antislavery Democrats and radical antislavery Free Soil party
  15. 15. Parties: Second Party System (1824–1854) <ul><li>Republican Split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “era of personal politics” created faction in Republican party, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams altered the name to National Republicans. Later became the Whigs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson formed the Democratic Party </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal spending on infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Liberty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity for the common man (only white man) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. US Parties: Third Party System: Civil War and Post Civil War (1854–1896) <ul><li>Slavery split parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whigs split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realignment- Northern industrialist merged with antislavery democrats and Free Soil party to form the Modern Republican Party (anti-slavery party) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dealignment- Southern Planters felt that a strong federal govt could also free slaves, so party cease to exist </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. US Parties: Third Party System: Post Civil War (1854–1896) Post Civil War <ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated the white south for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestant curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited/prohibited the sale of alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. US Parties: Third Party System: Post Civil War (1854–1896) <ul><li>Stronger Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong federal government to promote business and economic growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impose evangelical Protestant morals on society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican merged urban dwellers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After Civil War, white southern feared that strong Republicans will make them treats blacks fairly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats merge Populist party </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. US Parties: Fourth Party System/ Progressive Era (1896–1932) Industrial Revolution <ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul>1912 split : T. Roosevelt ran on the Bull Moose Ticket
  20. 20. US Parties: Fourth Party System/ Progressive Era (1896–1932) <ul><li>Republican split </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teddy Roosevelt created splinter party (Bull Moose Party) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split the Republican Vote, so Wilson was able to win </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wilson’s Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt. manipulation of the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive philosophy except for African Americans. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. New Deal/Fifth Party System (1932–1964) Depression and New Deal <ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul></ul>60’s Democrats split from economic and social Conservatives in south into republican base 60’s social progressives African Americans remained Democrats
  22. 22. New Deal/Fifth Party System (1932–1964) <ul><li>Democrats greater transformation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major intervention in the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Deal relief available to both whites and blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little government intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let private groups help </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Function of Political Parties <ul><li>To mobilize the public in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and run elections </li></ul><ul><li>Recruit Candidates (strategy: TO WIN) </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting alternative policies </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting responsibility for the operation of govt. (advocating party agenda) </li></ul><ul><li>Acting as opposition to party in power </li></ul>
  24. 24. Soft Money Raised by Parties, 1993-2002
  25. 25. Parties: Party Structure <ul><li>National Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governor controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State party chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Boss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Level (Grassroots) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>County Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>County Chairperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>District Leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precinct or ward captains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Party Workers </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Primary Elections <ul><li>Candidates official nomination process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All parties will select their candidate for the general election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential, Gubernatorial, Congressional, Senate candidates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any contested seat within party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Front-Loading: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State determines the date for its primary (NH) or caucus (IW) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early primaries are more influential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States compete to schedule their primaries as early as possible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Parties in Action <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrennial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominate presidential candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals party platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces new and upcoming stars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes party momentum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides funding for candidates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whips legislators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund raising </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Political Cartoon
  29. 29. Accountability to the Voters <ul><li>Presidential and Parliamentary Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Viable third parties </li></ul>
  30. 30. Role of the Citizen
  31. 31. Quiz <ul><li>How did Josh keep party members in line with the party’s platform and agenda? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Quiz <ul><li>Why are political parties essential to Democracy? And what tools do parties use to satisfy their members? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Political Cartoon