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Images Chap12hahn8e

  1. 1. Chapter Twelve Preventing Infectious Diseases
  2. 2. 7 Pathogens (Disease Producing Agents) <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Prion </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Rickettsia </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic worms </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chain of Infection
  4. 4. 5 Stages of an Infection <ul><li>Incubation </li></ul><ul><li>Prodromal </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul><ul><li>Decline </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mechanical and Cellular Body Defenses
  6. 6. Immune Response
  7. 7. Immunizations <ul><li>Diptheria </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B </li></ul><ul><li>Whooping cough </li></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus influenza B </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul>90% of children receive the following under the age of 2 years:
  8. 8. Immunizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Rubella (German measles) </li></ul><ul><li>Measles (red measles) </li></ul><ul><li>Mumps </li></ul><ul><li>Polio </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken pox </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia related infections </li></ul>90% of children receive the following at the age of 2 years:
  9. 9. Causes and Management of Selected Infectious Diseases <ul><li>The common cold (acute rhinitis) </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Mononucleosis </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic fatigue syndrome </li></ul>
  10. 10. Causes and Management of Selected Infectious Diseases (cont’d) <ul><li>Bacterial meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Lyme disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic shock syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A,B,C,D,E </li></ul><ul><li>West Niles Virus </li></ul><ul><li>SARS (Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases <ul><li>Most devastatingly infectious disease of modern times </li></ul><ul><li>Over 816,149 Americans have been diagnosed with AIDS [Dec. 2001] </li></ul><ul><li>Cause – virus that attacks helper T-cells of the immune system </li></ul>HIV/AIDS
  12. 12. <ul><li>Spread via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vaginal secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not transmitted by saliva, sweat, or tears </li></ul><ul><li>Most HIV positive people are asymptomatic </li></ul>HIV/AIDS
  13. 13. HIV/AIDS Symptoms <ul><li>Eventually the following may appear (HIV with symptoms) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tiredness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loss of appetite/weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>night sweats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>swollen glands (neck, armpit, groin) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. AIDS Worldwide
  15. 15. Diagnosis of HIV Infection <ul><li>ELISA (enzyme-link immunosorbent assay) </li></ul><ul><li>Western blot </li></ul><ul><li>Home tests (Home Access, Confide) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Treatment for HIV/AIDS <ul><li>No cure at this time </li></ul><ul><li>Combination drugs reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors ; both assist the body by disallowing replication of the virus in various cycles </li></ul><ul><li>HARRT (highly active antiretroviral therapy) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prevention of HIV Infection <ul><li>Abstaining from sexual activity </li></ul><ul><li>Monogamy </li></ul><ul><li>Using condoms with chemical barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Sobriety </li></ul><ul><li>Regular STD check-ups </li></ul><ul><li>Never share needles </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid unprotected anal intercourse </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other Prevalent STD’s <ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><li>HPV </li></ul><ul><li>Gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Herpes simplex </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>Pubic lice </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast and protozoa infections (vagina) </li></ul><ul><li>Cystitis/urethritis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chapter Twelve Preventing Infectious Diseases

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