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  • Chapter Nine: Rejecting Tobacco Use Evidence is linking tobacco use with impaired health. The regular user is more likely to become sick, remain sick, and to die prematurely than a non-user. Two million estimated deaths have been attributed to tobacco use from 1986-2000, therefore, any contention made by tobacco companies that tobacco is not dangerous is groundless and ignores the growing weight of scientific evidence.
  • Images Chap09hahn8e

    1. 1. Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use
    2. 2. Tobacco Use in American Society <ul><li>Since 1994, the population of smokers has declined (22.5% of adults smoke daily) </li></ul><ul><li>Men (25.2%) smoke more than women (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>College students smoke less than year 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, socioeconomics, education, and demographics are often factors that influence smoking </li></ul>
    3. 3. Other Demographic Factors Influencing Tobacco Use <ul><li>Age groups </li></ul><ul><li>Region of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Employment status </li></ul>
    4. 4. Pipe and Cigar Smoking <ul><li>Pipe/cigar smokers have the same rate of cancer frequency as cigarette smokers with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Tissue changes associated with lung cancer
    6. 6. Development of Dependence <ul><li>Dependence: physical and/or psychological need to continue the use of the drug (nicotine) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical dependence due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Titration : particular level of a drug within the body; adjusting the level of nicotine by adjusting the rate of smoking </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Theories of Nicotine Addiction <ul><li>Genetic theory – 60% of addiction is based upon genetic influence </li></ul><ul><li>Bolus theory – ball of nicotine reaches brain, causing excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenocorticotropic hormone theory (ACTH) – release of beta endorphins delivers euphoric effect </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Medication theory – nicotine via dopamine “lifts spirits” </li></ul>
    8. 8. Acute Effects of Nicotine on the CNS <ul><li>Arousal of nicotine allows norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin release </li></ul><ul><li>CNS is depressed within the brain which stimulates areas within the heart, lungs, blood flow </li></ul>
    9. 9. Psychosocial Factors Related to Dependence <ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to Advertising </li></ul>
    10. 10. Tobacco Active Components <ul><li>Particulate = nicotine, water, tar (small particles) </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous = carbon monoxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, etc. </li></ul>Carcinogens: capable of stimulating the development of cancer
    11. 11. Illness & Premature Death Due to Tobacco Use <ul><li>Cardiovascular disease (nicotine and carbon monoxide related) </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer (30% of all cancer cases related to tobacco use) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lung, mouth, throat cancers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) </li></ul>Mucus and cilia damage compromise the respiratory tract
    12. 12. Additional Health Concerns <ul><li>Strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle injury/back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Skin changes </li></ul><ul><li>Oral health </li></ul><ul><li>Brain and behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological disorders </li></ul>
    13. 13. Smoking and Reproduction <ul><li>Infertility </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy problems </li></ul><ul><li>Breastfeeding concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Neonatal Health Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Erectile dysfunction </li></ul>Use of oral contraception with smoking increases risk factors for CHD
    14. 14. Smokeless Tobacco <ul><li>Not burned, placed in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals absorbed through mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Risks: leukoplakia, erythroplakia, periodontal disease, cancer of digestive tract and mouth </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Risks of Involuntary (Passive) Smoking <ul><li>Mainstream smoke = smoke inhaled/exhaled by smoker (15% exposure to non-smoker) </li></ul><ul><li>Sidestream = smoke from the burning product (85% exposure to non-smoker) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental = smoke from either method diluted by the air </li></ul>Partners of smokers are 3 x’s higher for CAD and 30% higher risk for lung cancer
    16. 16. New Product Development <ul><li>Eclipse (cigarette that heats vs. burns tobacco) </li></ul><ul><li>Accord (cigarette that reduces sidestream smoke) </li></ul><ul><li>Advance, Omni, and Quest: cigarettes that have ‘trionic” filters which reduce carcinogen exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Non-tobacco sources of nicotine products e.g. suckers, gums, straws, sprays, drops, etc. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Smoking Cessation <ul><li>Nicotine products (patch, gum, inhaler) </li></ul><ul><li>Medications (anti-depressants) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation sprays </li></ul>
    18. 18. The benefits of quitting smoking
    19. 19. Chapter Nine Rejecting Tobacco Use