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  • Chapter 5: Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet Food is a necessity of life. Unfortunately, many students do not fully understand the role and importance of consuming nutrients properly. This chapter will discuss the important details of the study of foods.
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    1. 1. Chapter Five Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet
    2. 2. Nutrients <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>Elements necessary for growth, energy, and repair of tissues. * calorie = energy required to raise 1g of water 1ºC (carbohydrates, fats, proteins)
    3. 3. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Function: energy </li></ul><ul><li>Kcal value: 4kcal/gram </li></ul><ul><li>RDA: 60% of foods should derive from carbs </li></ul><ul><li>Types: mono, di, poly saccharides </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fats <ul><li>Function: long term energy, insulation, carrier of certain vitamins, and feeling of satiety (fullness) </li></ul><ul><li>Kcal value: 9 kcal/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Types: saturated,monounsaturated polyunsaturated, trans fat </li></ul><ul><li>RDA: No more than 20-35% total kcal; <10% kcal from saturated; </li></ul>
    5. 5. Tropical Oils <ul><li>Plant sources that are considered saturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are: Coconut, Palm, Palm kernel </li></ul><ul><li>Found in products such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snack foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crackers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakfast cereals </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. What is Cholesterol? <ul><li>White fat-like substance found in cells of animal origin </li></ul><ul><li>Function: synthesizes cell membranes, forms hormones, and bile </li></ul><ul><li>The body makes cholesterol from the liver </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of intake should be limited to less than 300 mg/day </li></ul><ul><li>HDL vs. LDL </li></ul>
    7. 7. Protein <ul><li>Function: growth and repair of tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Kcal value: 4 kcal/gram </li></ul><ul><li>RDA: 58 g/men and 46 g/women or 15% of total kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Types: essential and non-essential amino acids </li></ul>
    8. 8. Vitamins <ul><li>Function: organic compounds required for normal growth, reproduction, and maintenance of health. </li></ul><ul><li>Kcal value: 0 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Types: water soluble (B-complex,C), fat soluble can be toxic (A,D,E,K) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic materials needed in trace amounts for normal body maintenance and critical for regulation of body processes </li></ul><ul><li>Kcal value: 0 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Types: major (high amounts in body tissues) and minor minerals (small amounts) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Water <ul><li>Function: medium for waste transport, thermoregulation, and biochemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Kcal value: 0 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>RDA: 6-10 glasses/day/adults (depends on activity, environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Check your urine color to determine fluid maintenance </li></ul>
    11. 11. Fiber <ul><li>Edible, indigestible roughage </li></ul><ul><li>Function: allows transition of food within the bowels </li></ul><ul><li>Kcal value: 0 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Types: soluble/insoluble fiber </li></ul><ul><li>RDA: 25-35 grams/day/adults </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li> </li></ul>
    13. 14. What is a &quot;Healthy Diet&quot;? <ul><li>The Dietary Guidelines (2005) describe a healthy diet as one that: </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products </li></ul><ul><li>Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium ), and added sugars. </li></ul>
    14. 15. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 <ul><li>Key Recommendations for the General Population </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate nutrients within calorie needs </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Management </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Food groups to encourage </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium and potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholic beverages </li></ul><ul><li>Food safety </li></ul>
    15. 16. Functional Foods <ul><li>Foods capable of contributing to the improvement/prevention of specific health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: garlic, olive oil, fiber, folic acid, foods rich in calcium, A,C,E </li></ul><ul><li>Probiotics- living bacteria thought to help prevent disease and boost immunity (yogurt) </li></ul>
    16. 17. Food Labeling
    17. 19. Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Americans spent over 19 billion on supplements (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>These are OTC products that supplement one’s diet </li></ul><ul><li>They are not suppose to replace meals or conventional foods </li></ul><ul><li>Must be deemed safe for human use (FDA) </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot claim to cure or treat diseases </li></ul>
    18. 20. Foodborne Illness <ul><li>Consumption of contaminated food products </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms mimic flu-like maladies </li></ul><ul><li>Develops within 1-6 hours of exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial exposure (salmonella most common) </li></ul>
    19. 21. To Avoid Foodborne Illness : <ul><li>Clean hands, food contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods </li></ul><ul><li>Cook foods to a safe temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Chill (refrigerate) perishable food promptly and defrost foods properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk , raw or partially cooked eggs, raw or undercooked meat and poultry, unpasteurized juices, and raw sprouts. </li></ul>
    20. 22. Vegetarian Diets <ul><li>Ovolactovegetarian </li></ul><ul><li>Lactovegetarian </li></ul><ul><li>Vegan </li></ul><ul><li>Pesco-vegetarian </li></ul>Relies on plant sources for nutrients Types of vegetarians:
    21. 23. Food Allergies <ul><li>Reaction by the immune system to attack the body based on food consumed </li></ul><ul><li>Can be mistaken for food intolerance-(enzyme deficiency) </li></ul><ul><li>Common food allergies include: peanuts, milk, soy products, shellfish, and wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Could cause shock and/or even death </li></ul>
    22. 24. Chapter Five Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet