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Sen entitlements

  1. 1. Poverty as Severe Entitlement Failure Leland R. Dela Cruz Development Studies Program School of Social Sciences Ateneo de Manila University updated June 12, 2010
  2. 2. Poverty as Severe Entitlement Failure Sen, Amartya, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982. Dreze, Jean and Sen, Amartya, Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989 Dreze, Jean; Sen, Amartya; and Hussain, Athar (eds.), The Political Economy of Hunger. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1995 Nussbaum, Martha and Sen, Amartya (eds.), The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993 Sen, Amartya, Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books, 1999
  3. 3. Poverty, Income and Basic Needs Poverty has been traditionally defined as income deprivation. This has been improved upon by the basic needs approach which defines poverty as basic needs deprivation.
  4. 4. Poverty and Income Basic needs may be acquired using income. The capability of a person to acquire income enhances his chances of acquiring basic needs. Capability to earn income enhanced by:  Access to Health Services  Access to Educational Services
  5. 5. Poverty and Income But income is only a means of acquiring basic needs. Basic needs can be acquired apart from income.
  6. 6. Food Acquisition  Food can be bought.  Food can be produced.  Food can be obtained through transfers.  Transfers: Commodities/ money obtained from others without anything given in exchange.  Food can be obtained from the “commons”.  Commons: Commodities for which there are no property rights or unenforced property rights.
  7. 7. The Analysis of Famines  Famines can be caused by lack of food.  But famines have happened in areas where food was abundant.  Famines should be more generally understood as the inability to acquire food. Sen, 1982 and 1999
  8. 8. Causes of inability to acquire food  Health problems and problems with nature which affect direct producers.  Inability to access commons or depleting supply in the commons could affect those who rely on this resource.  Cessation of transfers could affect dependent individuals.
  9. 9. Why can’t food be acquired? Labor + Nature + Productive Resources Productive resources FOOD Assets Market Cash Crops/ Commodities Demand/ price of: Wage •Commodities Labor •Labor •Assets
  10. 10. Why can’t food be acquired? Labor + Nature + Productive Resources Productive resources FOOD Assets Market Cash Crops/ Commodities Supply/ price of: Wage •Productive Labor resources •Food
  11. 11. The Analysis of Famines  Famines are the result of the inability to acquire food.  Food is not a commodity a community suffering from a famine can acquire.  Food is not part of that community’s entitlements.
  12. 12. Entitlements Commodities over which a person can exercise ownership or command Sen, 1982
  13. 13. Famines as Entitlement Failure  Famines are a result of severe entitlement failure.  Different sectors have different ways of acquiring food.  Different sectors have different sources of vulnerabilities to famine.
  14. 14. The Acquirement Problem Labor + Nature + Productive Resources Productive resources SHELTER Assets Market Cash Crops/ Commodities Wage Labor
  15. 15. Poverty as severe basic needs deprivation Poverty as severe entitlements deprivation Poverty as the inability to acquire basic needs
  16. 16. Evaluating Entitlements  Is the good or service available?  Is the good or service accessible?  Is access to the good secure?  Is the good or service acceptable?  What is the quality of the good or service that is available? UN-Philippines, 2002
  17. 17. Access to Sanitary Facilities (2008, NDHS) Flush, septic Shared Toilet Flush, pit Phil. Rural Flush, sewer Urban Others None/… 0 20 40 60 80 % of households
  18. 18. Sources of Drinking Water Piped Water Tube Well Bottled Water, Improved Source Bottled Water, Non-improved… Total Rural Protected Spring Urban Protected Dug Well Others 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% NDHS, 2008 % of households
  19. 19. Other Sources of Drinking Water Public Tap Semi-protected well Rainwater Unprotected dug well Total Unprotected spring Rural Tanker Urban Surface Water Others 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% NDHS, 2008 % of households
  20. 20. Time to obtain water On premises Less than 30 minutes Total Rural Urban 30 minutes or longer 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% NDHS, 2008 % of households
  21. 21. Electricity With electricity Total Rural Urban Without electricity 0 20 40 60 80 100 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  22. 22. Flooring Material Cement Others Total Rural Palm/ bamboo Urban Earth 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  23. 23. Roof material Galvanized Iron Nipa Total Rural Urban Others 0 20 40 60 80 100 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  24. 24. Wall materials Cement blocks Cement Plywood Total Rural Urban Bamboo Others 0 10 20 30 40 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  25. 25. Tenure status of lot Owned/ being amortized Rented Series 3 Rural Rent-free with owner consent Urban Rent-free without owner consent 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  26. 26. Cooking Fuel LPG Charcoal Total Rural Wood Urban Others 0 20 40 60 80 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  27. 27. Household Effects Radio TV Landline Cell phone Washing Machine Total Rural Refrigerator Urban CD player Karaoke Computer 0 20 40 60 80 100 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  28. 28. Facilities Visited RHU/ BHC Private hospital Private clinic Total Regional hospital Rural Urban Local public hospital Alternative/ non-medical 0 10 20 30 40 50 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  29. 29. Facilities Visited RHU/ BHC Private hospital 1st Private clinic 2nd Regional hospital 3rd 4th Local public hospital 5th Alternative/ non-medical 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 NDHS, 2008 % of households
  30. 30. Child Delivery Attendants (2008, NDHS) 60 50 % of households 40 Urban 30 Rural 20 Phil. 10 0 Doctor Nurse Midwife Hilot Others
  31. 31. Child Delivery Attendants by Income Quintiles (2008, NDHS) 80 70 60 % of households 50 Lowest Second 40 Third 30 Fourth 20 Fifth 10 0 Doctor Nurse Midwife Hilot Others
  32. 32. Child Delivery Attendants by Region (2008, NDHS) 90 80 70 % of households 60 50 Doctor 40 Nurse 30 Midwife 20 Hilot 10 0 ARMM CAR IVB V IX X NCR I II III VII VIII XII IVA VI XI XIII
  33. 33. Location of Child Delivery (2008, NDHS) 70 60 % of households 50 40 Urban 30 Rural Phil. 20 10 0 Govt Hospital Private Hospital Home
  34. 34. Location of Child Delivery by Income Quintile (2008, NDHS) 90 80 70 % of households 60 Lowest 50 Second 40 Third Fourth 30 Fifth 20 10 0 Govt Hospital Private Hospital Home
  35. 35. Location of Child Delivery by Region (2008, NDHS) 90 80 70 % of households 60 50 40 Government Hospital 30 Private Hospital 20 Home 10 0 ARMM NCR CAR IVB V IX X I II III VII VIII XII XIII IVA VI XI
  36. 36. Problems in Women’s Access to Health Care (2008, NDHS) Maybe no drugs Maybe no provider Maybe no female provider No one to go with Phil. Rural Need to take transpo Urban Distance Money Need permission 0 20 40 60 80 % of women
  37. 37. Poverty as severe basic needs deprivation Poverty as severe entitlements deprivation
  38. 38. Basic Needs Deprivation  Different sectors have different ways of accessing basic needs.  If poverty is defined as basic needs deprivation, different poverty sectors have different forms of poverty.  Differences in entitlements and differences in deprivations among poverty groups necessitate differentiated solutions.
  39. 39. Poverty as Severe Entitlement Failure Leland R. Dela Cruz Director, Development Studies Program
  40. 40. Poverty as Severe Entitlement Failure Leland R. Dela Cruz Development Studies Program School of Social Sciences Ateneo de Manila University updated June 12, 2010
  41. 41. Other References  National Demographic and Health Survey, 2008  United Nations-Philippines (2002), Rights Based Approach to Development Programming, Training Manual

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