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Poverty as  Severe Capability Deprivation Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la C...
Limitations of the Basic Needs Approach <ul><li>Basic needs are just means to various ends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differen...
Poverty and Income <ul><li>Basic Needs  are just means to various ends </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be Healthy </li></ul><...
Basic Needs as Means to Ends Can I be healthy? Can I avail of health services? Can I be educated? Can I go to school?
Many means are needed  for a single end <ul><li>1. Ability to be healthy </li></ul><ul><li>- Ability to acquire food </li>...
Many means are available  for a single end <ul><li>Ability to be educated </li></ul><ul><li>Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>“N...
Non-market ends Aside from fulfillment of material needs, what other desires do the poor themselves express? Emotional Int...
Entitlements and Capabilities <ul><li>Entitlements: Commodities over which a person can exercise ownership or command. WHA...
Poverty and Capabilities <ul><li>Poverty constitutes a severe failure of capabilities.  </li></ul>
Female Life Expectancy 2000, PSY
Male Life Expectancy 2000, PSY
Life Expectancy 2004, PSY
Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
Infant Mortality Rate  per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
Infant Mortality Rate  per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
Infant Mortality Rate  per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
Maternal Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births; 1996-2000, PSY
Maternal Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births; 1995, PSY
Human Development Index <ul><li>Income per capita </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul...
Human Development Index  UNDP 2004 HDI Rank Country HDI Rank Country 177 112 111 94  83  76 59 25 8 1  0.273 Sierra Leone ...
Human Development Index  UNDP 2004
Human Poverty Index  UNDP 2004 <ul><li>Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult illiteracy...
Human Poverty Index  UNDP 2004 65.5 95 Burikina Faso 13.2 24 China 20.0 41 Viet Nam 13.1 22 Thailand 17.8 35 Indonesia 6.3...
Data Sources <ul><li>Philippine Statistical Yearbook </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Development Program, Human Developme...
Poverty as  Severe Capability Deprivation Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la C...
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Sen Capabilities

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Sen Capabilities

  1. 1. Poverty as Severe Capability Deprivation Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program
  2. 2. Limitations of the Basic Needs Approach <ul><li>Basic needs are just means to various ends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different means have to be in place for various ends to be realized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is room for creativity in identifying the appropriate means for various ends. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on basic needs distracts from non-market ends. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Poverty and Income <ul><li>Basic Needs are just means to various ends </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be Educated </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Engage in Productive Activity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Needs as Means to Ends Can I be healthy? Can I avail of health services? Can I be educated? Can I go to school?
  5. 5. Many means are needed for a single end <ul><li>1. Ability to be healthy </li></ul><ul><li>- Ability to acquire food </li></ul><ul><li>- Access to health services </li></ul><ul><li>- Access to education </li></ul><ul><li>- Ability to live in adequate space </li></ul><ul><li>- Ability to live in a clean environment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Access to education </li></ul><ul><li>- Access to educational services </li></ul><ul><li>- Dependent on ability to be healthy </li></ul>3. Ability to engage in productive employment - Dependent on ability to be healthy - Access to employment - Access to credit
  6. 6. Many means are available for a single end <ul><li>Ability to be educated </li></ul><ul><li>Schooling </li></ul><ul><li>“Non-formal” formal education </li></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>
  7. 7. Non-market ends Aside from fulfillment of material needs, what other desires do the poor themselves express? Emotional Integrity: freedom from fear and anxiety Political participation and accountability of governance structures Respect and dignity Organizational capacity Social Belonging Cultural identity
  8. 8. Entitlements and Capabilities <ul><li>Entitlements: Commodities over which a person can exercise ownership or command. WHAT DO I HAVE? WHAT CAN I ACQUIRE? </li></ul><ul><li>Capability: Alternative combinations of states of being a person can achieve. WHAT CAN I BE? WHAT CAN I DO? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Poverty and Capabilities <ul><li>Poverty constitutes a severe failure of capabilities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Female Life Expectancy 2000, PSY
  11. 11. Male Life Expectancy 2000, PSY
  12. 12. Life Expectancy 2004, PSY
  13. 13. Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
  14. 14. Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
  15. 15. Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
  16. 16. Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY
  17. 17. Maternal Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births; 1996-2000, PSY
  18. 18. Maternal Mortality Rate per 100,000 live births; 1995, PSY
  19. 19. Human Development Index <ul><li>Income per capita </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean Years of Schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy Rate </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Human Development Index UNDP 2004 HDI Rank Country HDI Rank Country 177 112 111 94 83 76 59 25 8 1 0.273 Sierra Leone 0.768 Thailand 0.691 Viet Nam 0.793 Malaysia 0.692 Indonesia 0.902 Singapore 0.745 China 0.939 U.S.A. 0.753 Philippines 0.956 Norway
  21. 21. Human Development Index UNDP 2004
  22. 22. Human Poverty Index UNDP 2004 <ul><li>Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult illiteracy rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Population without access to an improved water source. </li></ul><ul><li>Children underweight for age. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Human Poverty Index UNDP 2004 65.5 95 Burikina Faso 13.2 24 China 20.0 41 Viet Nam 13.1 22 Thailand 17.8 35 Indonesia 6.3 6 Singapore 15.0 28 Philippines 2.5 1 Barbados HPI Rank Country HPI Rank Country
  24. 24. Data Sources <ul><li>Philippine Statistical Yearbook </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report, 2004 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Poverty as Severe Capability Deprivation Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program

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