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  1. 1. The Rights-Based Approach to Development: Poverty as the failure to realize human rights Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program
  2. 2. Reference <ul><li>United Nations Philippines Rights Based Approach to Development Programming Training Manual </li></ul>
  3. 3. From basic needs to human rights <ul><li>Basic needs and other human freedoms are rights or things people are entitled to. </li></ul><ul><li>By virtue of their being human, people have certain rights that must be respected, protected, fulfilled and provided. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Improvements made by the rights-based approach <ul><li>Emphasizes accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Sets objective standards </li></ul><ul><li>Protects vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic view of development </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes process </li></ul>
  5. 5. Accountability Impunity and lack of accountability hinder the realization of rights. Lack of political will is an obstacle to the fulfillment of basic needs. Needs must be met because they people have rights. Needs can be met through charity and benevolence. Rights-Based Approach Basics Needs Approach
  6. 6. Empowerment Rights are realized. Needs are met or satisfied. People can demand for what they need because the fulfillment of these needs is their right. People have to ask for what they need or rely on charity and benevolence . Rights-Based Approach Basics Needs Approach
  7. 7. Objective standards <ul><li>Universal Declaration of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1966) and Discrimination Against Women (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (1966) and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration on the Right to Development (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Other conventions… </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vulnerable Groups <ul><li>Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1966) and Discrimination Against Women (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Holistic view of development Powerlessness is both a symptom and a cause of the problem. The problem is lack of access to good quality commodities and services and powerlessness . The problem is lack of access to good quality commodities and services. Rights-Based Approach Basics Needs Approach
  10. 10. Process People are agents of change. They set goals and participate in implementation and evaluation. People have a right to participate in their own development. People are recipients of benevolent development programs. Rights-Based Approach Basics Needs Approach
  11. 11. What are the Obligations? <ul><li>Respect human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not violate human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent others from violating human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fulfill human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate the exercise of human rights. Remove obstacles which impede some from enjoying opportunities available to others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the right that some may not be able to realize on their own </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Who are the Duty-Bearers? <ul><li>Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Entities in the immediate jurisdiction of the claim-holders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local governance structures, local civil society organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entities on higher levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National governance structures, national-level civil society organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External duty bearers </li></ul>
  13. 13. The State and the Rights-Based Approach to Development <ul><li>The State is the biggest threat to human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>The State is in the best position to protect and fulfill human rights. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are the Obligations of the State? <ul><li>Respect human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not violate human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent others from violating human rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fulfill human rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate the exercise of human rights. Remove obstacles which impede some from enjoying opportunities available to others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the right that some may not be able to realize on their own </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Right to work and obligations of the State <ul><li>Obligation to respect: The state must not discriminate with respect to government employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to protect: The state must protect its citizens against violations of labor standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to facilitate: The state must ensure availability of training services. </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation to provide: The state must work toward higher levels of employment in the country. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Progressive Realization <ul><li>The State must take targeted and concrete steps to the realization of human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>The State must maximize its available resources for the realization of human rights. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Rights-Based Approach to Development: Poverty as the failure to realize human rights Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program

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