How the americas change


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How the americas change

  1. 1. A Difficult Past- How the Americas Change Lisa Daleiden
  2. 2. Background Readings <ul><li>During the late 18 th - early 19 th century almost all lands in the Western Hemisphere won independence from European colonial power. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada built a federal state under British Canadian leadership. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada gained independence from Britain without war. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1780’s = Constitution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility to federal government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local issues dealt with by individual states. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1803 = Louisiana Purchase. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial of Fears (1837-1838)- forced Cherokee from eastern woodlands to Oklahoma. </li></ul><ul><li>1836 = Texas declared independence from Mexico. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to Mexican-American war from 1845- 1848. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S paid Mexico for parts of Texas, California and New Mexico. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Missouri Compromise of 1820- maintain balance between slave and free states. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background Readings Continued <ul><li>11 southern states withdrew from the Union in 1860-1861. </li></ul><ul><li>1863 – Lincoln signed Emancipation Proclamation and ended slavery. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory for Northern states. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British North American Act of 1867- joined Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and recognized them as the Dominion of Canada. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alberta and Saskatchewan joined the Dominion in 1905 and New Found land joined in 1949. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin American elites divided in to different camps. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberals or Conservatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralists or Federalists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secularists or Roman Catholics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexican Revolution= 1911-1920. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broke out to overthrow dictator Porfirio Diaz. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The government gained control. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican Constitution addressed in 1917. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Little Ice Age <ul><li>The Little Ice Age= 14 th -19 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of climate shifts. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate affect war. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change led to dieses epidemics. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate effected crows and food supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1400’s global temperature dropped four degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Forces that caused Little Ice Age unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Witches were said to be one cause of climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe blamed Vikings for climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Climatologist theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanic conveyor belt changed by warmer temperature (glaciers melt and affect Conveyor belt). </li></ul><ul><li>Could we see another Little Ice Age today? </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes. </li></ul><ul><li>Floods. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Louisiana Purchase <ul><li>1803- The U.S purchase the Louisiana Territory from France (Napoleon). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 million dollars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Louisiana Territory later split into six states. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1682 – French claim Louisiana and name it after King Louie the 14 th . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1762 after French and Indian War, the French give Louisiana to Spanish as a token of gratitude for aid in war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French later reclaim Louisiana. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Napoleon makes deal with Spanish. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Port city of New Orleans important because of its position on Mississippi River. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The North American Frontier <ul><li>By 1821 two republics claimed most of the west. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico and U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indians claimed land but different tribes challenged each other for the land (Black Hills). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blackfeet, Arapaho, Crow, La Cottas, Cree and Siox. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexico won it’s Independence in 1821 and allowed Americans into Texas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Texas became Republic of Texas and separated from Mexico in 1836. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texas, Oregon, Washington, California, New Mexico and Idaho become part of the Union. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crossroads of Freedom <ul><li>In the American Civil War, 11 states of the Confederacy established a government at Richmond in May of 1861. </li></ul><ul><li>General George B. McClellan took charge of Army of Potomac. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Young Napoleon”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jefferson Davis was inaugurated to his full six-year-term as President on February 22, 1862. </li></ul><ul><li>CSS Virginia (Merrimac) and USS Monitor- first battle between ironclad ships on March 8 th , 1862. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CSS Virginia sank the USS Cumberland. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cotton embargo- states blockade, “cotton famine”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Crossroads of Freedom Continued <ul><li>Thomas J. Jackson- Confederate general. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Stonewall” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became the most renowned commander in the South and most feared in the North until his death in June of 1862. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Robert E. Lee- important general for the Southern states. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as “Granny Lee”, “Evacuating Lee and “King of Spades”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Milita Act passed on July 17, 1862. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized the President to call state milita into federal service for nine months and to draft them if a state failed to fulfill it’s quota. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>August 6, 1861- passing of Confiscation Act. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized the seizure of all property. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Crossroads of Freedom Continued <ul><li>In 1861-1862 nearly all Northern Democrats supported restoration of the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>The party divided into “war” and “peace” Democrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Many men at this time in the war suffering from “battle fatigue”. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress, exhaustion and illness. </li></ul><ul><li>McClellan (Northern commander) continued to be under scrutiny. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln and others in the North did not trust in his decision making. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crossroads of Freedom Continued <ul><li>Emancipation Proclamation- warning Confederate states that unless they returned to the Union by January 1 st , 1863, their slaves would be free. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proclamation would only apply to states in rebellion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 24,1862- Writ of Habeas Corpus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorized military trials for rebels and insurgents, aides and abettors, resisting milita drafts, all persons discouraging volunteer enlistments and those guilty of disloyal practices. </li></ul></ul>