study of the distribution and determinants of
health related states or events in human
populations and the application of this study to the
prevention and control of health problem.
*Definition of HIV
(human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that
causes AIDS. Usually this virus is passed from one person to
another through blood-to-blood or sexual contact.
* People with HIV have what is called HIV infection. Without
appropriate therapy, most of these people will develop
AIDS as a result of
their HIV infection.
*Where did HIV come from?
identified a type of chimpanzee in
West Africa as the source of HIV infection in
* They believe that the chimpanzee version of
the immunodeficiency virus that called simian
immunodeficiency virus, or SIV is most likely
was transmitted to humans and mutated into
HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees
for meat and came into contact with their
* Studies show that HIV may have jumped from
apes to humans as far back as the late 1800s.
Over decades, the virus slowly spread across
Africa and later into other parts of the world.
We know that the virus has existed in the
United States since at least the mid- to late
*How is HIV passed from
one person to another?
The mode transmission of HIV :
* Having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
* Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior.
* Vaginal sex is the second highest-risk sexual
multiple sex partners or having other
sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk
of infection through sex.
needles, syringes, rinse water, or other
equipment used to prepare injection drugs with
someone who has HIV.
* Being born to an infected mother.
* Being stuck with an HIV-contaminated
needle or other sharp object. This is a risk
mainly for health care workers.
products, or organ/tissue transplants that
are contaminated with HIV.
* Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an
* Being bitten by a person with HIV.
* Oral sex.
* Contact between broken skin, wounds,
mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood
or blood-contaminated body fluids.
In 2005 , an individual which infected with HIV are more
than 95% are low and middle income countries. About 1500
are children under 15 years old and about 10 000 are in adult
aged and almost 50% are among women and 40% among
young people .
Malaysia is classified as having a ‘concentrated’ HIV
epidemic, in that HIV prevalence is less than 1% in the
general population but consistently more than 5% in most
at-risk populations, particularly people who inject drugs,
female sex workers and mak nyah (transgender women).
Unsafe drug injecting practices constituted more than 70%
percent of the overall HIV infections reported since 1986
who become infected with HIV may not have
any symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass
the infection to others. After you come in contact with
the virus, it can take up to 3 months for a blood test to
show that you have HIV.
* Symptoms related to HIV are usually due to a different
infection in the body. Some symptoms related to HIV
* Frequent vaginal yeast infections
* Mouth sores, including yeast infection (thrush)
* Muscle stiffness or aching
* Rashes of different types, including
seborrhea dermatitis and psoriasis
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph glands
* Safer Sex
Both women and men may need instruction in the
correct use of condoms and avoid multiple partner sex.
* Injection Precautions
for example , no sharing needles .
* Preventing Transmission to Uninfected Partners
for example do a HIV screening test before married.
* HIV education programs for school children by using various
* Prevention among People of Color
African Americans and Hispanics of both sexes have
disproportionately higher rates of HIV/AIDS in the
United States. which due to their imbalance health
that linked to their socioeconomic condition is one of
the factor why do among them have high risk of HIV