Writing Critically Writing critically means:• Analyzing your own work and others’• Presenting your point of view• Supporting your point of view
Writing Critically In other words, you need to:• Consider different points of view and discuss their positive and negative aspects• On the basis of this discussion you choose a point of view and persuade the reader that your point of view is the correct one.
Support• Your opinions need to be supported• You need to provide evidence• You need to explain why the evidence supports your point of view
Your point of view• Make sure you clearly distinguish between: • Your point of view • Your evidence • Your reasons for believing what you do.
Presenting your argument• You can present your argument in two ways: • The inductive or balanced approach • The deductive or persuasive approach
Presenting your argument• The inductive or balanced approach You present both sides of the argument without giving your opinion until the last few sentences. You do need to provide evidence for your opinion.
Your point of viewBe sure that the evidence that you areproviding leads to the claim you are making(Toulmin, 1958) Evidence Reasons Claim (support or (warrant or (thesis) grounds) argument)
Presenting your argumentWhen using the inductive/balanced approach,your plan could look as follows:1. Introduction of the argument (Why it is relevant)2. Reasons against the argument. (Mention the position, the evidence and the reasons)3. Reasons in favor of your argument. (Mention the position, the evidence and the reasons)4. Summarize the two sides, state your own point of view and explain it.
Presenting your argument• The deductive or persuasive approach In this type of approach you state your point of view immediately and you try to convince your reader that your are right by presenting reasoned arguments.
Presenting your argumentWhen using the deductive/persuasive approach,your plan could look as follows:1. Introduction of the topic in general terms and your own point of view.2. Explanation of what your are trying to prove.3. Reasons against the argument
Presenting your argument4. Disposing of the above-mentioned reasons (Provide evidence and your reasons)5. Reasons for your argument (Provide evidence and your reasons and examples)6. Conclusion (Restate your claim and explain its importance)
Giving reasons and Explanations Writing critically means that you have to make connections between the ideas that you are presenting. You need to explain why things happen the way they do, giving reasons and examples.
Giving reasons and Explanations The situation: Pollution is increasing One reason for this might be the fact that people burn more fossil fuels So: Pollution is increasing (situation) People are burning more fossil fuels (reason or explanation)
Arguing a point of viewArguing means stating your claim (yourpoint of view). You need to support this bygiving evidence and reasons why you thinkyour evidence supports your claim. It islikely that your claim is debatable. You maybelieve in it, but other people may disagreewith you. The objective of your argument isto prove to your reader that you are correct.
Arguing a point of viewGeneralizationsThe claim that you make will be quitegeneral and it is likely that it will apply toother contexts and situations as well, notjust your own. Usually these generalizationsare written in the present tense.The seems to be a important link betweennutrition and heart disease.
Arguing a point of viewCautious languageIt is important that you are careful about thestrength of your claims.Obesity during childhood may lead to anincrease chance of becoming obese in laterlife.Most traffic accidents occur because offatigue or excessive alcohol consumption.
Evaluating a point of viewBesides stating your own point of view, youneed to comment and evaluate otherpeople’s ideas as well. For example, you maywant to use a point of view you have readabout in a scientific journal. It is importantthat you explain why this point of viewsupports, or doesn’t support your own.
Evaluating a point of view When evaluating a point of view or a conclusion, you need to:• Present the point of view• Comment on it positively or negatively.
Comparing and contrastingWhen you are writing you do a lot morethan just give information. A commonfunction in writing is comparing andcontrasting, or writing about similaritiesand differences. It is important that beforeyou start writing you decide which features,items, or ideas you are going to compareand organize them accordingly.
Providing supportThe claims that you make in yourdiscussions need to be quite general. Youneed to draw general conclusions that willbe valuable in solving problems in thefuture. Again, these generalizations need tobe supported by examples, details, andevidence.
Drawing conclusionsAfter presenting your point of view,evaluating the possible choices (allsupported with evidence), you need to cometo a conclusion. The main fuction of theconclusion is to show that the main purposeof the text has been achieved.
Drawing conclusions A concluding section should:• Repeat the issues raised in the introduction• Summarize the points made in the main body of your text• Come to a clear conclusion
Drawing conclusionsMany conclusions, especially in reports,finish with recommendations orsuggestions. For example:Further research is needed to determinewhether ….