Designing tasks and lessons listening and viewing


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Designing tasks and lessons listening and viewing

  1. 1. Designing Listening Tasks <ul><li>Instructional Principles </li></ul>
  2. 2. Task Types <ul><li>Global Comprehension vs Partial Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down vs Bottom-up Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical vs Meaningful vs Communicative Response </li></ul><ul><li>Selection based on Learning Outcomes / Objectives NOT TESTING! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples of Task Types <ul><li>Mechanical response-discrimination task - to distinguish between two words or sounds - comprehension is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful response -comprehension of the input is required- no creative abilities are called into play - match one of two sentence to one which he or she hears. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative response - create a suitable response on the basis of what is understood, and where interpretation, adaptation, and the addition of new information is required. For example, the listener may hear a problem discussed and then have to suggest a solution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Some Common Listening/Viewing TASK TYPES <ul><li>Matching or distinguishing: Choosing a response in written or pictorial form that corresponds with what was heard/viewed - e.g., placing pictures in a sequence which matches a story or set of events; choosing a picture to match a situation, such as listening to a radio advertisement and finding the product from a set of pictures). </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring / Transduction - receiving information in one form and transferring the information or parts of it into another form - e.g., listening to a discussion about a house and then sketching the house or viewing/listening and creating a storyboard or representing ideas in graphic organiser or multimodal text ( eg listening to a song and creating a MTV) </li></ul><ul><li>Transcribing </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Transcribing - Listening, and then writing down what was heard. Dictation is the most common example of this activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning - Exercises in which listeners must extract selected items by scanning the input in order to find a specific piece of information (e. g., listening to a news broadcast and identifying the name of the winning party in an election) </li></ul><ul><li>Extending - Going beyond what is provided, such as reconstructing a dialogue when alternate lines are missing or providing a conclusion to a story. </li></ul><ul><li>Condensing. Reducing what is heard to an outline of main points, such notetaking or categorising using tables/ graphic organisers </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Answering - Answering questions from the input. Different sorts of questions will focus on different levels of listening (e.g., questions which require recall of details, those which require inferences and deductions, those which require evaluation or reactions). </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting - Guessing or predicting outcomes, causes, relationships, attitude and so forth, based on information presented in a conversation or narrative. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Principles for Task Selection <ul><li>Different tasks require different skills and response according to the text-type, purpose of listening, types of listening and the social context eg one-way listening or interactive listening, listening to news broadcast vs listening to a panel discussion etc </li></ul><ul><li>TEACH LISTENING NOT TEST LISTENING - tasks must teach the skills/ strategies focused on eg cognitive / metacognitive strategies for understanding task demand, planning, monitoring comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>INTEGRATE listening/viewing tasks with other language skills or knowledge eg listening/viewing text provide model of text-type or language features required for speaking/representing or for writing task eg TAVI or TALO? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lesson Staging <ul><li>Why is consideration of various stages in lesson planning important? </li></ul><ul><li>PRE/DURING/POST - process orientation - different cognitive / meta-cognitive process utilised at different stages of listening/viewing </li></ul><ul><li>important that we choose appropriate tasks for the students both before they listen and while they listen and after they listen </li></ul>
  9. 9. PRE-Listening/Viewing <ul><li>Aim of pre-listening activities is to prepare the students for what they are going to listen to: </li></ul><ul><li>feeding in, checking or recalling language - activating EXISTING language knowledge or building linguistic schema </li></ul><ul><li>setting the scene / context </li></ul><ul><li>activating appropriate schemata - content / topic knowledge , background knowledge or prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>engaging their attention - getting them motivated to actually listen to the text </li></ul><ul><li>setting a meaningful purpose for the listening/ viewing - NEED to LISTEN / VIEW </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE - these are pre-listening / viewing strategies /skills which YOU should RAISE students’ AWARENESS of so they can develop meta-cognitive knowledge and USE appropriately on their OWN! </li></ul>
  10. 10. TYPES of Pre-Listening Activities <ul><li>personalisation - asking students about their experiences or opinions in relation to the topic, getting them to discuss in groups </li></ul><ul><li>showing pictures and having students react - scaffolding with VISUAL or MULTIMODAL TEXT </li></ul><ul><li>brainstorming concepts, points view, perspectives, arguments, words and phrases etc associated with the topic </li></ul><ul><li>predicting content of the text from the title or pictures or keywords </li></ul><ul><li>telling students the topic and getting them to generate questions they would like to know the answers to </li></ul>
  11. 11. DURING LISTENING/VIEWING <ul><li>While-listening activities should help the students focus on relevant information while they listen. </li></ul><ul><li>What is relevant depends on the aims of lesson </li></ul><ul><li>While-listening tasks may include: </li></ul><ul><li>note taking / graphic organisers etc </li></ul><ul><li>completing a grid with information </li></ul><ul><li>answering questions ( different levels of comprehension / thinking or require different types of skills or strategies </li></ul><ul><li>ordering events / categorising information or points of views/ arguments </li></ul>
  12. 12. IMPORTANT... <ul><li>different stages - SCAFFOLDING from one stage to another - providing appropriate SUPPORT for LEARNING and PROGRESSION from one level to another level. </li></ul><ul><li>MUST have opportunities to TALK about HOW they use certain skills/ strategies for different stages or different tasks i.e develop their metacognitive knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>WORKING co-operatively or collaboratively - help each other and share their understanding or their problems and construct their own solutions to problems encountered </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Opportunity to talk about how they got on. Were they able to easily identify the information required by the task? Or did they need to listen lots of times? What was the problem? Was it lack of understanding of the topic or the cultural context? Was it lack of vocabulary? Or not being able to decipher the stream of speech because of the speed or because of a particular accent? ( FOCUS ON LEARNING PROCESS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Important that there is reflection/ joint construction of understanding GUIDED through teacher-modelling of THINING-ALOUD and skilful QUESTIONING so that teacher and the learners can identify learning needs and design appropriate subsequent lessons (AFL - ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING) </li></ul>
  14. 14. POST-LISTENING/VIEWING <ul><li>Listening / Viewing - INTEGRATED into other parts of the lesson and will therefore lead into other activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up activities may focus on language features or on further skills activities - INTEGRATE with other skills like Reading/ Speaking/ Writing/ Presenting and /or Grammar/Vocab </li></ul>
  15. 15. Possible Post-Activities <ul><li>Language focus activities could include: </li></ul><ul><li>listening to parts of text intensively and writing down what they hear, to focus on features of connected speech (linking, assimilation etc) or intonation/stress </li></ul><ul><li>completing a gapped version of the tape script (or part of it) to focus on particular expressions/ grammatical structure or form </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Building using listening text eg through identifying lexical sets or collocations or semantic maps or dictionary skill </li></ul><ul><li>identifying text-type features eg linguistic features of argument text and use this as scaffolding for reading the same type of text eg discourse markers signalling agreement or disagreement </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Integrating Language Skills eg reading or writing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>research the topic further on the internet for a speaking / representing task or debate </li></ul><ul><li>compare content of listening with written text (e.g. useful with news broadcasts - compare with newspaper articles of same stories, or with a film - compare a scene with the same scene in the book) </li></ul><ul><li>role-play or drama task based on topic / situation / character relationship in text eg tableaux or freeze-frame for characters in text or hotseating ( taking on role of a character) </li></ul><ul><li>parallel writing task - using listening/viewing text for content or plot ideas eg write a letter to a newspaper about the topic or write an article for a magazine </li></ul><ul><li>create a multimodal text based on topic / point of view eg create an advertisement for a campaign </li></ul>